De Pompidou à Macron, le système Rothschild tire toujours profit de la dette publique

par Albert Ricchi

Depuis la loi de 1973, dite « loi Rothschild », du nom de la banque dont était issu l’ancien président de la République, Georges Pompidou, l’État est obligé de passer par le système des banques privées pour financer son endettement.




Aujourd’hui, Emmanuel Macron, issu lui aussi de la banque Rothschild, ne compte pas bien sûr remettre en cause cette loi, préférant faire des coupes sombres dans les budgets sociaux pour réduire le déficit de l’Etat…

Depuis 1973, le Trésor public ne peut plus présenter ses propres effets à l’escompte de la Banque de France. En clair, l’État est condamné à se financer par des emprunts, contre intérêts, auprès de banques privées, au lieu de continuer à emprunter sans intérêt auprès de la Banque de France.




Comment en est-on arrivé là ? En 1973, après de 30 années de création monétaire, l’économie française était remise à flot. Dans l’esprit de l’ancien président de la République, Georges Pompidou, et des hauts fonctionnaires qui l’entouraient à l’époque, la France était désormais reconstruite suite aux destructions de la deuxième guerre mondiale.




Il semblait donc plus aussi nécessaire de laisser persister des mécanismes qui s’étaient avérés bénéfiques pour le financement de dépenses d’investissements structurels, d’autant plus que ces mécanismes de création monétaire avaient été souvent utilisés pour financer le fonctionnement courant de l’Etat.




Il s’agissait avant tout d’instituer un garde-fou afin de préserver le pays de l’inflation et des dévaluations de la monnaie en s’imposant une discipline budgétaire. Il apparut souhaitable à la fois d’encadrer les dérives potentielles de l’Etat et de sortir d’une ère d’économie administrée en établissant un autre système de financement.

Mais le problème, c’est que ces bonnes intentions finirent par faire le jeu du monde de la finance qui a vite vu l’intérêt qu’il pouvait retirer d’un système par lequel l’État devait obligatoirement passer pour emprunter. De ce point de vue, la loi de 1973 fut également le fruit d’un habile lobbying bancaire visant à neutraliser tous ceux qui étaient favorables au système en vigueur jusqu’ici.




Cette loi a été abrogée en 1994 mais après avoir été étendue et confortée au niveau de l’Union européenne par les traités de Maastricht (à compter du 1er novembre 1993, article 104) et Lisbonne (à compter du 1er décembre 2009, article 123) que la France appliquer à la lettre depuis cette date.

Les critiques de la loi de 1973

Contrairement à ce qu’escomptaient les initiateurs de la loi de 1973, l’endettement public non seulement s’est poursuivi mais a augmenté considérablement, l’État étant progressivement devenu l’otage d’un système financier privé.




On le voit aujourd’hui en France mais aussi en Grèce, en Irlande, au Portugal, en Espagne, en Italie, ce ne sont plus les états qui gouvernent mais la « troïka » (Union européenne, Fond monétaire international et Banque centrale européenne) qui resserre toujours davantage son emprise financière sur les pays, notamment du Sud de l’Europe.

La critique de cette loi a notamment été porté par Étienne Chouard qui a préfacé le livre de l’essayiste altermondialiste André-Jacques Holbecq « La dette publique, une affaire rentable », publié en 2008.




Le webdocumentaire « L’Argent Dette » (documentaire sur la création monétaire, 2008) de de Paul Grignon, fustige le fait que les États empruntent de l’argent et payent des intérêts, alors qu’ils pourraient créer l’argent. Diffusé en streaming sur le web et en DVD, il nous montre à l’aide d’animations et d’explications claires la façon dont est créé l’argent. Et contrairement à ce que l’on peut croire, la monnaie créée par l’État ne représente que 5% de l’argent en circulation contre 95% créée par quelqu’un signant une reconnaissance de dette à une banque.

Gabriel Galand et Alain Grandjean, membres de l’association « Chômage et Monnaie », créée en 1992, ont dénoncé eux aussi cette loi dans un livre de 1996,  » La monnaie dévoilée « , aux Editions L’Harmattan.




Dans le documentaire franco-allemand d’Arte, « La dette, une spirale infernale ? », le pouvoir des banques de créer de l’argent à partir de rien, contre une promesse de remboursement y est critiqué également par le regretté Bernard Maris qui expliquait notamment : « L’argent, qui était devenu un bien public – c’est-à-dire que l’État gérait la création monétaire – est redevenu un bien privé, créé par les banques, de grandes puissances autonomes, dans les années 1970, et après ça n’a fait que s’amplifier ».

C’était aussi l’avis de Michel Rocard qui estimait que cette loi a « interdit à l’État de se financer sans intérêt auprès de la banque de France » et l’a obligé à « aller se financer sur le marché financier privé à 4 ou 5 % ».




Dans son livre « L’Arnaque du siècle » de 2012, Nicolas Dupont-Aignan écrit « Comment pouvons-nous accepter d’avoir transféré la création monétaire au secteur privé, c’est-à-dire aux banques privées ? […] Est-il normal, pour construire une autoroute, pour financer le haut débit, d’emprunter à 3 % à des banques ou par des obligations alors que la banque centrale publique prête à 1 % ? […] Alors même que l’on pourrait, comme la France l’a fait jusqu’en 73 […] financer à un taux abordable nos équipements publics ? ».

Des critiques, comme Emmanuel Todd, vont jusqu’à considérer que la dette est illégitime et ne doit pas être remboursée.




Des chiffres méprisés par Emmanuel Macron

Si les taux d’intérêt ont fortement diminué ces dernières années, s’établissant à moins de 1% en moyenne ou même négatifs à certaines périodes de l’année depuis 2012, ils ont été très élevés par le passé.

Dans les années 80, le taux d’intérêt moyen à 10 ans était de 11,9%, dans les années 90 de 6,3%, dans les années 2000 de 3,9%. En 2011, les taux d’intérêt à dix ans notamment sur les emprunts d’Etat de la Grèce ont atteint des niveaux record, jusqu’à 17,68 % ! La tension sur la Grèce a poussé à la hausse les taux des autres pays fragiles de la zone euro : les rendements à dix ans de l’Irlande ont atteint jusqu’à 11,31 % et ceux du Portugal 10,46 %.




En 1978, la dette publique de la France représentait 72,8 milliards € et 21,2% du PIB.

En 1988 : 302,8 milliards € et 33,3% du PIB.

En 1998 : 787,4 milliards € et 59,6% du PIB.

En 2005 : 1147,6 milliards € et 66,8% du PIB. La charge de la dette (paiement des intérêts seuls) se montait à 47,4 milliards d’euros, soit la presque totalité de l’impôt sur le revenu payé par les Français. Cette charge était le deuxième poste budgétaire de l’État français, après celui de l’Éducation nationale et avant celui de la Défense.

En 2007 : 1211,6 milliards € et 64,2 % du PIB. La charge des intérêts se montait à plus de 50 milliards d’euros, soit l’équivalent du déficit public.

Fin 2013 : 1 925,3 milliards d’euros, soit 93,5 % du PIB.

A la fin du 1er semestre 2014, la dette a dépassé officiellement les 2 000 milliards €.

Fin 2015, lorsque Emmanuel Macron était encore ministre de l’Economie, de l’industrie et du Numérique, la dette est montée à 2 098 milliards € !

Fin juillet 2017, la dette s’élevait à 2 226 milliards € (soir 35 441 € par habitant et 70 882 € par ménage)

Un calcul précis révèle en outre que de 1980 à 2008, la dette a augmenté de 1 088 milliards €, les intérêts payés se montant à 1306 milliards d’euros ! Sans les intérêts encaissés par les financiers privés, la dette publique française se serait élevée, fin 2008, à 21,4 milliards d’euros au lieu de 1 327 milliards € !




Une situation dramatique qui s’est encore aggravée depuis la crise de 2008 où, en volant au secours des institutions financières, l’État est également devenu le fournisseur en premier ressort de ces mêmes institutions qui lui reprochent son endettement et lui appliquent en conséquence des taux usuraires.




Aujourd’hui, Emmanuel Macron occulte systématiquement le problème du financement de la dette publique par des organismes bancaires privés à l’image des « éminents journalistes » que sont les Apathie, Barbier, Calvi, Demorand, Joffrin, Lechypre, Lenglet, Pernaut, Pujadas qui préfèrent parler de « l’insupportable fardeau de la dette », « la France en faillite », « les nécessaires sacrifices à faire », « la nécessité de ne pas vivre au-dessus de nos moyens » etc.




C’est ainsi que s’imposent dans l’opinion françaises et européenne des vérités apparentes qui confortent l’inéluctabilité de l’austérité et la remise en cause le système des créanciers privés pour financer l’endettement des états…

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