Découverte de l’Amérique : Christophe Colomb est un imposteur, la preuve par 3



Crédit image: Christophe Colomb (1451-1506) aurait découvert l'Amérique dans la nuit du 11 au 12 octobre 1492 (SAGEP/SIPA) 

C’est un évènement historique qui pullule dans nos manuels d’histoire : le 12 octobre 1492, Christophe Colomb découvre l’Amérique. C’était il y a 521 ans jour pour jour. Mais le navigateur italien est-il vraiment le premier à avoir poser le pied sur le nouveau monde ? Jean-Paul Fritz remet en question l’histoire.

« Christophe Colomb a découvert l’Amérique en 1492 ». Présentée comme une vérité historique, cette petite phrase est pourtant l’un des plus gros mensonges des manuels scolaires qui ont servi à des générations d’écoliers.

Certains, dans une pseudo-tentative d’honnêteté intellectuelle, précisent « le premier Européen ». Là aussi, c’est raté, et il y a des preuves archéologiques : on sait très bien que Leif Eriksson, un Viking, a précédé Colomb de cinq siècles. Le fait est que cette pseudo-découverte du marin génois n’a marqué que le début de la colonisation du continent américain par les Européens, avec comme conséquence dramatique la disparition de millions d’indigènes du nouveau monde.

En cette date anniversaire (12 octobre) du débarquement de Colomb, quelques éléments sur le sujet :

Que s’est-il passé après l’arrivée de Colomb ?

Conquistadors, colons, missionnaires, n’ont pas seulement mené des guerres de conquête, ils ont aussi apporté avec eux des maladies venues de l’autre côté de l’Atlantique, contre lesquelles les indigènes n’étaient pas immunisés : la variole, la grippe, la peste… Le résultat a été une diminution massive de la population autochtone.

Vu qu’il n’y avait aucun compte précis de la population de l’époque, il est difficile de dénombrer le nombre de morts liées à la colonisation européenne. Le terme de « génocide » a été écarté, l’importation involontaire de maladies représentant le plus grand nombre de morts.



La fiche anglaise de Wikipédia donne une estimation assez réaliste : 30 millions de personnes en 1492, dont 15 millions dans l’empire aztèque et 6 millions dans l’empire inca. À la fin du XVIIe siècle, il n’en restait plus que 9 millions. Seulement 10% des pertes seraient liées à des combats, le reste proviendrait de la maladie.

Des recherches menées sur l’ADN en Amérique ont récemment montré que la moitié de la population avait disparu aux environs de 1500, soit assez peu de temps après le premier débarquement de Colomb.

Qui a vraiment découvert l’Amérique ?

– Selon des études récentes, la première vague de peuplement proviendrait du sud-est asiatique, via l’Australie qu’ils avaient occupée voici 60 000 ans. Ces premiers occupants, parents des actuels aborigènes australiens, auraient été soit éliminés soit assimilés par la vague de peuplement suivante.

  • Les plus connus des conquérants de l’Amérique sont les peuplades venues d’Asie qui ont traversé ce qui est aujourd’hui le détroit de Béring, en deux grandes vagues. Leur première vague daterait de plus de 15.000 ans (la fourchette dont discutent les historiens est assez large, allant jusqu’à 30.000 ans). Les ancêtres des actuels indigènes d’Amérique auraient suivi ensuite, remplaçant ou assimilant les précédents.
  • Le premier Européen à fouler le sol d’Amérique était Leif Ericson, fils du chef viking Erik le Rouge. Il a établi une colonie sur les côtes de l’actuel Canada aux environs de l’an mille.
  • Bon dernier, Christophe Colomb a permis aux puissances européennes de la Renaissance de commencer la conquête du « nouveau monde ».

Qui l’a peut-être aussi découverte ?

Beaucoup de théories, plus ou moins crédibles, circulent sur les découvreurs de l’Amérique. En voici une liste, sans doute incomplète, et à prendre avec les précautions nécessaires :



  • Les Polynésiens : même s’il n’y a pas de preuve directe, on sait qu’ils ont colonisé jusqu’à l’Île de Pâques et Hawaï. Et d’après des études effectuées sur des souches de patates douces, des chercheurs ont déduit qu’ils auraient importé celles-ci d’Amérique voici 2.500 ans, bien avant l’arrivée de Colomb.
  • Les Romains. Non, ce n’est pas un remake de la « Grande Traversée » d’Astérix. Mais la découverte de quelques pièces de monnaie et d’un buste au Mexique a amené certains à dire que des Romains auraient atteint les côtes américaines.



À ce stade-là, il serait presque plus facile de faire la liste de ceux qui n’ont PAS découvert l’Amérique. Mais ce qui est certain, c’est que Colomb ne fut pas le premier, même si son voyage a certainement été le plus nocif pour les indigènes.

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