En Amérique, Cette Carte Des Tribus Indiennes Est Absente Des Livres d’Histoire

À l’âge de 10 ans, la plupart des enfants aux États-Unis connaissent les 50 États formant la nation. Mais, il y a des siècles, cette terre qui est maintenant les États-Unis était un endroit bien différent.

À l’âge de 10 ans, la plupart des enfants aux États-Unis connaissent les 50 États formant la nation. Mais, il y a des siècles, cette terre qui est maintenant les États-Unis était un endroit bien différent.

Plus de 20 millions de natifs américains étaient alors dispersés parmi plus de 1000 peuples, tribus et groupes ethniques distincts peuplant le territoire. Aujourd’hui, les natifs américains ne comptent plus que pour 1,5 % de la population. Une bonne partie de leur histoire a été perdue, notamment en raison du système éducatif malheureusement lacunaire sur la question d’enseigner une histoire riche et complexe des États-Unis.

Ci-dessous sont présentés quelques faits peu connus sur les natifs américains, qui devraient être inclus dans tous les livres d’histoire.

Indian-NationLes tribus de la Nation Indienne

Les tribus

En janvier 2016, on comptait 566 tribus de natifs américains officiellement reconnus par le Bureau des affaires indiennes.

Avant le contact avec les Européens, il se trouvait plus de 1000 tribus, groupes ou clans, mais malheureusement certains se sont totalement éteints à la suite des épidémies ou de la guerre.

On ne trouve aujourd’hui plus aucune carte historique précise montrant la position des tribus de natifs américains en Amérique du Nord à une période donnée. Après le contact avec les Européens, la situation changeait constamment, avec un contact ayant eu lieu à différents moments et dans différentes régions.

Du XVIe au XIXe siècle, la population des natifs américains a fortement décliné, passant d’approximativement 20 millions à un minimum de 250 000 individus. Aujourd’hui, on trouve près de 2,9 millions de natifs américains en Amérique du Nord.

En 2000, les plus grands groupes aux États-Unis, en ce qui concerne la population, étaient les Navajo, les Choctaw, les Sioux, les Chippewa, les Apaches, les Blackfeet, les Iroquois et les Pueblo.Native-American-indigenous.jpgCarte des cultures indigènes des natifs américains

Les régions

Les tribus de natifs américains aux États-Unis étaient généralement divisées en 8 régions distinctes, dans lesquelles les tribus partageaient certaines similarités dans la culture, la langue, la religion, les traditions et la politique.

Sur la côte du Nord-Ouest, les natifs américains n’avaient pas besoin de cultiver, car les plantes comestibles et les animaux étaient nombreux sur terre et dans la mer. Ils sont connus pour leurs mâts totémiques, leurs canoës pouvant faire tenir jusqu’à 50 personnes, et leurs maisons faites de planches de cèdre.

La Californie – Plus de 100 tribus de natifs américains vivaient là autrefois. Ils péchaient, chassaient du petit gibier et ramassaient des glands, qui étaient écrasés et servis en bouillie.

Le Plateau – Les natifs américains du Plateau vivaient dans la région entre la chaîne des Cascades et les montagnes Rocheuses. Afin de se protéger du froid, beaucoup construisaient des maisons partiellement souterraines.

Le Grand Bassin – S’étendant à travers le Nevada, l’Utah et le Colorado, les natifs américains du Grand Bassin devaient supporter un climat froid et sec, et creuser pour beaucoup de leur nourriture. Ils furent l’un des derniers groupes à avoir été en contact avec les Européens.

Le Sud-Ouest – Les natifs américains du Sud-Ouest construisaient des maisons faites de briques d’abobe. Nombre de ces tribus étaient des fermiers compétents qui faisaient pousser des cultures et créaient des canaux d’irrigation. Des tribus connues de la région comprennent la nation Navajo, les Apaches et les Indiens pueblo.

Les Plaines – Les Indiens des Grandes Plaines étaient connus pour la chasse au bison, au buffle et à l’antilope, qui leur fournissaient une nourriture abondante. Ils étaient un peuple nomade vivant dans des tipis et se déplaçaient constamment en suivant les troupeaux.

Le Sud-Est – La majorité des tribus de natifs américains de la région étaient des fermiers compétents et restaient généralement en un endroit. La plus grande tribu de natifs américains, les Cherokee, vivait dans le Sud-Est.

Les langues

On estime qu’il y avait près de 1000 langues parlées aux Amériques avant l’arrivée des Européens.

Aujourd’hui, on trouve environ 296 langues indigènes à travers l’Amérique du Nord. 269 d’entre elles sont classées en 29 familles, tandis que les 28 langues restantes sont isolées ou non classifiées.

Aucune des langues natives d’Amérique du Nord n’avait de système d’écriture. Cependant, les langues parlées n’étaient ni primitives ni simples. Beaucoup avaient des systèmes grammaticaux aussi complexes que ceux du russe et du latin.

Il y avait (et il y a) une diversité énorme entre ces langues. Des personnes de clans ou de tribus éloignées de 150 km pourraient avoir été complètement incapables de communiquer par la parole. Des tribus voisines utilisaient souvent une forme de langue des signes afin de communiquer entre elles.

Selon l’UNESCO, la plupart des langues indigènes d’Amérique du Nord sont en danger critique, et beaucoup sont déjà éteintes.

Aux États-Unis, la langue navajo est la langue native américaine la plus parlée, avec plus de 200 000 locuteurs dans le sud-ouest du pays.

Seules 8 langues natives américaines aux États-Unis ont un nombre assez important de locuteurs pour peupler une ville de taille moyenne. Il s’agit des langues Navajo, dree, Ojibwa, Cherokee, Dakota, Apache, Blackfoot et Choctaw.

Moins de 20 langues natives américaines aux États-Unis sont estimées survivre encore 100 ans.Native-American-tribe-language.jpgCarte des langues parlées par les natifs américains

Références

Native Americans Prior to 1492. History Central

Native American languages. The Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition. Indiana University Bloomington

First Owners of America. Legends of America

Native Americans – Tribes/Nations. History on the Net

 

Source: Ancient Origins

Comments

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