L’armée israélienne frappe Gaza après le tir d’une roquette vers Tel-Aviv

Frappe israélienne sur Gaza, le 25 mars. STRINGER / REUTERS

Les avions de chasse israéliens ont frappé des cibles attribuées au Hamas. Dans la soirée, le mouvement islamiste annonçait un cessez-le feu grâce à une médiation égyptienne, non confirmé par Israël.

Deux images simultanées ont dominé les écrans israéliens, en fin d’après-midi, lundi 25 mars. La première était celle du premier ministre, Benyamin Nétanyahou, reçu par Donald Trump à la Maison Blanche. Le président américain a signé la proclamation reconnaissant la souveraineté de l’Etat hébreu sur le plateau du Golan, annexé en 1981. Mais l’euphorie n’était pas vraiment de mise, malgré ce cadeau politique fait à Israël, après la reconnaissance de Jérusalem comme capitale. Une nouvelle fois, la menace d’une escalade se dessinait sur la bande de Gaza, au terme d’une journée débutée par un tir de roquette vers l’agglomération de Tel-Aviv.

Pendant que les deux dirigeants se rencontraient à Washington, les avions de chasse et les hélicoptères survolaient le territoire palestinien, frappant des « dizaines  » de cibles attribuées au Hamas, notamment dans la ville de Gaza, aux rues désertées. Un immeuble de trois étages y a été détruit dans le quartier de Tzabra. Il s’agirait du quartier général secret des services de renseignement militaire et civil du mouvement islamiste, a précisé l’armée dans un communiqué.

Celle-ci a aussi revendiqué une frappe sur un bâtiment de cinq étages dans le quartier de Rimal, qui aurait servi à des fins militaires. Les médias palestiniens rapportaient dans la soirée que les bureaux du chef du bureau politique du Hamas, Ismaïl Haniyeh, avaient aussi été visés. Un message politique clair, et non la volonté de l’assassiner, tous les dirigeants du mouvement islamiste étant à l’abri dans la perspective des frappes israéliennes.

Pendant ce temps, à Tel-Aviv comme dans d’autres villes côtières, la municipalité ordonnait l’ouverture de tous les abris publics antibombes, dans la crainte d’une escalade nocturne. Les factions palestiniennes ont déclenché des tirs de roquettes de courte portée vers les communautés israéliennes frontalières.

Vers 22 heures, le porte-parole du Hamas, Faouzi Barhoum, annonçait qu’un cessez-le feu avait été conclu, par l’intermédiaire de l’Egypte, le médiateur habituel. Comme le 14 mars dernier, ou bien le 21 juillet et le 29 mars 2018, journées marquées par des épisodes de violences brefs et intenses. Au même moment pourtant, l’armée israélienne publiait un communiqué où elle affirmait qu’elle continuait à frapper Gaza.

Défi sécuritaire et politique

« J’ai un message simple pour les ennemis d’Israël, a déclaré le chef du gouvernement, aux côtés de Donald Trump. Nous ferons ce que nous devons faire pour défendre notre peuple et défendre notre Etat. » La nuit précédente, à Washington, M. Nétanyahou avait appris le tir d’une roquette en provenance du territoire palestinien, qui s’était écrasé peu après 5 heures du matin sur une maison à Mishmeret, communauté située à une trentaine de kilomètres au nord de Tel-Aviv. Le domicile a été éventré et sept personnes blessées, dont un bébé et un enfant de 3 ans.

Cette attaque constituait un défi sécuritaire et politique pour Israël. L’armée a renforcé ses effectifs dans le sud du pays, en y déployant deux brigades supplémentaires, ainsi que des réservistes des forces aériennes. Les points de passage vers le territoire palestinien ont été fermés et la zone de pêche réduite.

Benyamin Nétanyahou a décidé d’écourter son séjour aux Etats-Unis, sans se présenter mardi devant les délégués de l’Aipac, le lobby pro-israélien. Cette contrariété a mis en lumière les limites de son cumul des fonctions. A la fois premier ministre et ministre de la défense depuis la démission d’Avigdor Lieberman en novembre 2018, « Bibi » a dû gérer la réponse militaire tout en préparant sa visite à la Maison Blanche. Il n’y avait personne d’autre, en Israël, pour orchestrer la réplique.

Un tir dû « à de mauvaises conditions météo »

A 15 jours des élections législatives du 9 avril, Benyamin Nétanyahou est attaqué par tous les responsables de droite en raison de la fin de la dissuasion israélienne face au Hamas. Ces critiques viennent aussi bien de faucons comme Naftali Bennett, qui rêve du portefeuille de la défense, ou Avigdor Lieberman, que de Benny Gantz, le principal rival du premier ministre, à la tête de la nouvelle formation Bleu et Blanc.

Sur le fond, une nouvelle fois, la droite israélienne est rattrapée par son absence de vision au sujet de Gaza, où les conditions de vie sont intenables. Sur Twitter, Amos Yadlin, directeur de l’Institut pour les études de sécurité nationale et ancien chef du renseignement militaire, recommandait lundi matin un changement de stratégie, permettant de retrouver un effet de surprise et de dissuasion face aux groupes armés, qui exploitent une violence de basse intensité sans prendre le risque d’une guerre.

Un haut responsable du Hamas, Bassem Naïm, a estimé dans la journée, sur Twitter, que le tir « pourrait être dû à de mauvaises conditions météo ». Etonnante justification, alors que les intempéries, depuis la dernière guerre à l’été 2014, n’avaient jamais provoqué d’erreur de manipulation aux conséquences aussi dramatiques. L’armée, elle, tient le Hamas pour responsable du tir déclenché lundi matin. La roquette serait, selon elle, de fabrication artisanale et locale, d’une portée de 120 kilomètres. Le 14 mars, les autorités avaient accepté l’explication fournie par le mouvement islamiste armé, après le tir de deux roquettes en direction de l’agglomération de Tel-Aviv. Elles n’avaient pas causé de victime ou de dégâts. Les dirigeants du Hamas avaient parlé d’une « erreur », sans en préciser la nature et l’origine.

Au moment où les deux tirs avaient eu lieu, plusieurs cadres du mouvement se trouvaient en pleine discussion avec une délégation des services de sécurité égyptiens. Le Caire avait essayé sans succès de faciliter une sorte de compromis entre les factions et Israël, en vue d’un cessez-le-feu. Mais en période électorale, aucun geste d’ouverture n’est à attendre du côté de l’Etat hébreu afin de desserrer le blocus. Les groupes armés palestiniens estiment que seuls les épisodes de violence permettent de peser.

Vives tensions dans le milieu carcéral

Le 22 mars, deux Palestiniens ont été tués à la frontière de Gaza, où les factions ont repris leurs activités de harcèlement des soldats israéliens, multipliant les jets d’engins explosifs. Elles comptent mobiliser massivement la population à l’occasion du premier anniversaire de la « marche du retour », le 30 mars. Le Hamas mise sur ce rendez-vous pour réorienter la colère populaire vers l’extérieur, après avoir réprimé violemment la contestation sociale, qui était apparue dans toutes les villes pendant dix jours contre le coût de la vie.

Selon les maîtres de Gaza, l’Autorité palestinienne aurait cherché à appliquer un « plan vicieux » pour entraîner un « soulèvement ». Mais il existe encore une autre motivation, parmi d’autres, pour saisir l’escalade de lundi matin : la situation des prisonniers de sécurité palestiniens dans les prisons israéliennes.

Deux gardiens de la prison de Keziot ont été poignardés dimanche par des détenus, qui ont aussi compté plusieurs blessés dans leurs rangs lors de l’émeute qui a suivi. Quelques jours plus tôt, dans la prison de Ramon, des prisonniers avaient mis le feu à leurs matelas. Depuis des semaines, la tension est vive dans le milieu carcéral, en raison de nouveaux brouilleurs de communication mis en place par les services de sécurité, rapporte la presse israélienne. Ils visent à empêcher l’usage de téléphones portables, interdits mais très répandus. Or il s’agit du seul lien possible avec leurs proches pour de nombreux prisonniers détenus pour des peines longues. Ces téléphones permettent également aux représentants des détenus de coordonner leurs actions avec les factions à l’extérieur.

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