Les perturbateurs endocriniens associés à des troubles du comportement

Une étude menée par l’Inserm montre que l’exposition prénatale aux perturbateurs endocriniens est associée à des troubles du comportement chez les garçons de 3 à 5 ans. Les composés les plus préoccupants étaient le bisphénol A, le triclosan et le phtalate de dibutyle, ou DBP.

Une étude menée par l’Inserm montre que l’exposition prénatale aux perturbateurs endocriniens est associée à des troubles du comportement chez les garçons de 3 à 5 ans. Les composés les plus préoccupants étaient le bisphénol A, le triclosan et le phtalate de dibutyle, ou DBP.

L’étude a porté sur 500 garçons de la cohorte EDEN.
Pendant la grossesse de leurs mères, un dosage a mesuré les phtalates et les phénols dans l’urine.
Il y avait une association entre des troubles émotionnels ou de l’hyperactivité chez les enfants et l’exposition aux perturbateurs endocriniens pendant la grossesse.

Le bisphénol A a été interdit de tous les contenants alimentaires en France en janvier 2015, une date ultérieure à la réalisation de cette étude. Le triclosan est un agent antibactérien retrouvé dans certains dentifrices et savons ; le DBP est utilisé comme plastifiant dans les plastiques de type PVC, certaines colles, vernis à ongles et laques pour les cheveux. Triclosan et DBP sont réglementés selon la logique d’une valeur limite dans certaines familles de produits, tout en étant interdits dans d’autres (le DBP est par exemple interdit d’usage dans les cosmétiques et le triclosan dans les habits dans l’UE).

Des études toxicologiques in vitro et chez l’animal ont mis en évidence que ces composés étaient des perturbateurs endocriniens et pouvaient interagir avec des systèmes hormonaux impliqués dans le développement normal du système nerveux central. Les mécanismes précis qui pourraient expliquer un effet des perturbateurs endocriniens sur le neurodéveloppement et le comportement pourraient passer par une altération du fonctionnement des hormones thyroïdiennes, des hormones stéroïdiennes, comme l’œstrogène, ou d’autres hormones, comme l’ocytocine ou la vasopressine, des hormones sécrétées par l’hypothalamus.

Face à ces premières conclusions chez l’animal, les chercheurs ont souhaité étudier l’association entre les expositions aux perturbateurs endocriniens pendant la grossesse et le comportement ultérieur des enfants.

Quelle exposition pour les femmes enceintes ?

L’étude parue dans la revue Environmental Health Perspectivesa porté sur 529 petits garçons de la cohorte mère-enfant EDEN, mise en place par l’Inserm. Les femmes enceintes participant à cette cohorte ont été recrutées entre 2003 et 2006 dans les CHU de Nancy et Poitiers. Aux troisième et cinquième anniversaires de l’enfant, ces mamans ont rempli un questionnaire standardisé évaluant certains aspects du comportement de leur enfant tel que l’hyperactivité, les troubles émotionnels et les troubles relationnels.

Ce questionnaire standardisé, utilisé depuis une vingtaine d’années, intitulé « Questionnaire des forces et difficultés » de l’enfant, permet d’établir un score dans différentes dimensions du comportement telles que les symptômes émotionnels, les problèmes de relation avec les pairs, les problèmes de conduite, d’hyperactivité et d’inattention. Un échantillon d’urine prélevé durant la grossesse a permis le dosage de biomarqueurs caractéristiques de l’exposition aux phénols et aux phtalates dans le laboratoire de Santé environnementale des CDC d’Atlanta, qui est en charge des campagnes de biosurveillance américaines.

De 70 à 100 % des femmes de la cohorte EDEN, recrutées durant leur grossesse entre 2003 et 2006, étaient alors exposées à des niveaux détectables de différentes substances. Les niveaux urinaires étaient de l’ordre de 1 à 3 µg par litre pour le bisphénol A, de 10 à 100 µg par litre pour le triclosan, et de 50 à 200 pour le méthylparabène. Les résultats suggèrent que l’exposition maternelle à certains phénols et phtalates est associée à des troubles du comportement des petits garçons.

Hyperactivité et troubles relationnels

L’exposition au bisphénol A était associée à une augmentation des troubles relationnels à 3 ans et des comportements de type hyperactif à 5 ans. Les chercheurs notent que ce travail confirme ainsi que les effets du bisphénol A sur le comportement observés chez l’animal de laboratoire se retrouvent chez l’humain à des expositions faibles, probablement inférieures à celles préconisées par l’autorité européenne de sécurité alimentaire, l’EFSA.

Le métabolite du DBP était, lui, associé à davantage de troubles émotionnels et relationnels, incluant les comportements de repli, à 3 ans, mais pas à 5 pour les troubles émotionnels. Des associations entre ces composés et le comportement avaient déjà été mis en évidence dans des études précédentes chez de jeunes garçons et chez l’animal. Ainsi, dans une étude réalisée à partir de femmes et d’enfants new-yorkais, une augmentation des comportements de repli chez les enfants de 3 ans avec des niveaux croissants du métabolite du DBP avaient été rapportés en 2012.

Les résultats de cette étude ont aussi montré une association entre le triclosan et une augmentation des troubles émotionnels à 3 et 5 ans. Il s’agit de la première étude évaluant les effets de ce composé sur le comportement, pour lequel l’équipe d’épidémiologie environnementale de Grenoble avait déjà mis en évidence une diminution du périmètre crânien à la naissance, dans cette même population.

L’effectif de l’étude, qui est une des plus vastes sur la question, ne permettait pas d’étudier directement la survenue de pathologies du comportement comme les troubles du spectre autistique, ce qui impliquerait de suivre des dizaines de milliers d’enfants. Les équipes de recherche vont désormais s’attacher à répliquer ces résultats au sein de la cohorte mère-enfant SEPAGES en cours dans la région grenobloise, coordonnée par l’Inserm et soutenue par l’European Research Council. Dans cette dernière, de nombreux échantillons d’urine par participant sont recueillis durant la grossesse et les premières années de vie de l’enfant. Cette approche permettra de limiter les erreurs de mesure de l’exposition et d’identifier de potentielles périodes de sensibilité aux phénols et phtalates sur différents évènements de santé tels que la croissance, le comportement ou la santé respiratoire. Cela permettra aussi d’étudier l’effet éventuel de ces substances chez les petites filles, qui n’avaient pu être considérées ici. Il est possible que leur sensibilité aux perturbateurs endocriniens diffère de celle des garçons.

Les perturbateurs endocriniens inquiètent les agences de l’ONU

Dans un rapport, deux agences de l’ONU appellent à davantage de recherches sur les perturbateurs endocriniens. Ces composés, qui altèrent nos systèmes hormonaux, seraient à l’origine de nombreuses pathologies allant du cancer aux troubles de la fertilité en passant par des maladies neurologiques.

De nombreuses substances chimiques, dont les effets perturbateurs sur le système endocrinien pourraient favoriser l’émergence de cancers ou de troubles du système nerveux, doivent faire l’objet de recherches approfondies, plaident deux agences de l’ONU dans un rapport publié mardi.

Le Programme des Nations unies pour l’environnement (PNUE) et l’Organisation mondiale de la santé (OMS) mettent en évidence les risques que représentent ces substances, appelées perturbateurs endocriniens, quand elles pénètrent dans l’environnement.

Certains perturbateurs endocriniens sont naturels alors que d’autres, présents dans les pesticides, les appareils électroniques, les produits d’hygiène personnelle et les cosmétiques, sont synthétiques, souligne l’étude. « Près de 800 substances chimiques sont reconnues ou suspectées d’interférer avec les récepteurs hormonaux et avec la synthèse ou la conversion des hormones », soulignent les agences. « Toutefois, seule une petite fraction de ces substances ont été étudiées par des tests à même d’identifier leurs effets perturbateurs », ajoutent-elles.
Des perturbateurs endocriniens qui rendent malade

Ces perturbateurs chimiques entrent dans l’environnement « principalement par le biais des effluents industriels et urbains, le ruissellement des terres agricoles et l’incinération et le rejet des déchets » et l’être humain y est exposé via la nourriture, la poussière, l’eau ou quand il inhale du gaz ou des particules présents dans l’air.

Ils peuvent contribuer à plusieurs types de pathologies, comme « la cryptorchidie (absence d’un ou des deux testicules dans le scrotum) chez le jeune garçon, du cancer du sein chez la femme, du cancer de la prostate, de troubles du développement du système nerveux […] chez l’enfant, ainsi que du cancer de la thyroïde », selon les agences de l’ONU.
Quel rôle jouent-ils ? On ne sait pas exactement…

Dans certains pays, jusqu’à 40 % des jeunes hommes ont un sperme de mauvaise qualité, ce qui altère leur capacité à concevoir un enfant, souligne par exemple le rapport, qui rappelle aussi que « le taux global de cancers liés au système endocrinien a augmenté sur les 40 à 50 dernières années ».

Pour autant, soulignent l’OMS et le PNUE, les connaissances encore « très lacunaires » ne permettent pas de connaître précisément le rôle des perturbateurs chimiques dans l’augmentation de ce type de pathologies, d’autres facteurs environnementaux ou « non génétiques », comme l’âge et la nutrition, pouvant aussi jouer.

« Nous devons mener d’urgence davantage de recherches », conclut dans un communiqué María Neira, directeur du département santé publique et environnement de l’OMS.

Le bisphénol A a une dent contre nos dents  D’après une étude scientifique dirigée par Sylvie Babajko, le bisphénol A altérerait l’expression de deux gènes impliqués dans la formation de l’émail des dents chez le rat. L’extrapolation à l’Homme semble tout à fait plausible.

 

Source:http://www.futura-sciences.com

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