Nouvel Ordre Mondial: une startup veut créer des enfants génétiquement parfaits !



Vous connaissez le film Bienvenue à Gattaca ? Bienvenue en 2017 ! La startup américaine Darwin Life réalise des fécondations dont le but est de permettre aux femmes de plus de 40 ans d’avoir des enfants. Pour y parvenir, Darwin Life remplace certains gènes avec ceux de femmes plus jeunes. Une manipulation génétique qui souleve de lourdes questions éthiques à cause du fort risque de dérive.

Dans le film Bienvenue à Gattaca on est plongé dans un monde où l’eugénisme est devenu la norme, au point que ceux qui ont été conçus « à l’ancienne » deviennent des citoyens de seconde zone. Les parents peuvent tout choisir des caractéristiques de leur enfant : couleur des yeux, force, intelligence, et enlever de leur ADN tout risque de développer des maladies.

Ce que propose la startup Darwin Life, c’est en fait à la base de faire de la conception à trois parents : l’ovule est fécondé avec le matériel génétique du père, mais une partie des gènes est remplacée par ceux d’une personne plus jeune. Dans certains cas, cette technique doit augmenter les chances qu’un foetus viable se développe, surtout lorsque les parants ont la quarantaine bien tassée.

Bienvenue à Gattaca : une startup se spécialise dans l’eugénisme

Dans d’autres cela doit permettre à des personnes atteintes de troubles génétiques d’avoir des enfants qui partagent leurs gènes, mais qui ne seront jamais exposée à la ou les maladies génétiques qui affectent leurs parents. Là où ça commence à faire un peu flipper, c’est quand le docteur John Zang, à l’origine de l’entreprise lance aux journalistes de Technology Review :

« Tout ce que nous faisons est une étape vers les designer babies, en alliant les techniques de transfert de noyau et d’édition génétique, vous pouvez vraiment faire ce que vous voulez. »

Designer babies, c’est un mot inventé qui signifie des enfants dont le code génétique a été changé, ou fabriqué. Cela signifie, justement, comme dans Gattaca, qui est une cinglante dystopie critique de l’eugénisme, de pouvoir changer la couleur des yeux de l’enfant, décider de sa taille, de sa propension à l’endurance, etc.



Evidemment, outre ces aspects, cela pourrait aussi permettre d’éviter de développer de graves maladies comme par exemple la myopathie. Du coup, on voit toute la lourdeur du débat éthique que cela suppose. On imagine que ces techniques, par ailleurs ne seront pas gratuites, et que potentiellement seule une frange de la population particulièrement aisée pourra en faire usage.

Pour l’heure cette technique de conception est interdite dans de nombreux Etats du monde. Si bien que Darwin Life procède à ses essais au Mexique. Mais le fait que ces méthodes soient activement développées fait craindre l’arrivée prochaine d’humains modifiés génétiquement pour être parfaits…

 

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