Quand le Mars 68 de Tunis devançait le printemps de Paris



Crédits: DR

Deux mois avant le Mai parisien, l’extrême gauche étudiante tunisienne se révoltait contre le régime de Habib Bourguiba issu de l’indépendance.

LETTRE DE TUNIS

Des étudiants flânent dans la cour au revêtement fatigué, gobelet de café à la main, parfois une cigarette au bout des doigts. Quelques petits palmiers et un bassin viennent adoucir un décor de béton très années 1960. C’est la pause, chacun souffle entre deux cours de sociologie ou de lettres. De la butte où est juchée la faculté des sciences humaines et sociales, on aperçoit côté sud les rives du lac de Sijoumi, où s’agglomèrent les quartiers populaires du Grand Tunis. Mais l’université regarde à l’est, surtout vers la Kasbah, le centre géographique et politique de Tunis, gigantesque esplanade bordée de ministères au seuil de la médina.

En mars 1968, les étudiants de la faculté regardaient tellement vers la Kasbah, ce symbole de l’Etat, qu’ils étaient entrés en révolte, devançant de quelques semaines leurs camarades de Paris. Les enfants du bourguibisme – du nom du « père de la nation » Habib Bourguiba – s’enfiévraient au diapason de la jeunesse mondiale. La dissidence, vite muselée par une farouche répression, marqua durablement la gauche tunisienne et planta des germes de démocratie qui nourrirent la singularité de la trajectoire tunisienne.

Un climat explosif

Un demi-siècle plus tard, la mémoire de l’événement survit pourtant avec peine. « Je ne connais pas grand-chose à cette histoire », soupire Sarah, une étudiante en lettres, cheveux libres et jean déchiré à la mode. « Ici, la majorité des étudiants sont de gauche car ils aiment la liberté », ajoute-t-elle. « De gauche » certes. Mais la filiation avec les aînés de 68 est plutôt lâche. La transmission du souvenir entre générations bute sur une mémoire aseptisée, gommée de ses aspérités par des décennies de dictature, un passif qui ne s’est pas résorbé par enchantement avec la révolution tunisienne de 2011.

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