Un implant cérébral pour booster la mémoire, c’est fait

Grâce à un implant cérébral, des chercheurs ont amélioré les capacités de mémorisation d’une vingtaine de patients en leur délivrant des impulsions électriques ciblées dans l’hippocampe, région clé pour l’apprentissage et la mémoire.

PROTHÈSE. Apprendre plus vite et mémoriser mieux, sans effort : telle est la perspective ouverte par un nouvel implant cérébral conçu et testé à l’université de Californie du Sud. En utilisant un dispositif délivrant des impulsions électriques au cœur du cerveau, l’équipe du docteur en ingénierie biomédicale Dong Song, est parvenue à améliorer de 30 % la mémoire des 20 participants à l’expérience. L’annonce de ces travaux a été faite au congrès annuel de la Society for Neuroscience, qui s’est déroulé à Washington (États-Unis) à la mi-novembre, et relayée par le NewScientist« Cela n’avait jamais été fait auparavant », a précisé le Dr Song, qui parle d’une véritable « prothèse de la mémoire ».

Les volontaires étaient des patients atteints d’épilepsie déjà équipés d’implants cérébraux pour traiter leurs crises. L’idée était donc de réorienter temporairement la fonction du dispositif pour le bien de l’essai. Pour cela, il a fallu étudier la façon dont la mémoire s’activait dans le cerveau de chaque participant, afin de savoir précisément comment le stimuler. Concrètement, les chercheurs ont distingué deux types de mémoire : celle à court terme, qui stocke l’information de façon passive sur une durée inférieure à une minute ; et la mémoire de travail, qui s’étale sur une durée plus longue et enregistre les informations de façon active permettant de les manipuler. Dans un premier exercice, les volontaires devaient se souvenir de formes indistinctes et inhabituelles — type bulles informes —  perçues 5 à 10 secondes auparavant ; dans le second, il s’agissait de reconnaître des images présentées 10 à 40 minutes avant.

Améliorer… puis manipuler le cerveau

Ces résultats ont permis d’établir les schémas d’activité cérébrale adéquats à renforcer par stimulation électrique. En effet, au lieu de stimuler au hasard l’hippocampe — structure clé dans l’apprentissage et la mémoire —, « nous écrivons le code neural pour améliorer le fonctionnement de la mémoire », a expliqué le Dr Dong Song. Ainsi, avec le bon modèle d’activation cérébrale, les participants ont vu leurs capacités augmentées d’environ 15 % dans les exercices de mémoire à « court terme » et de 25 % sur ceux concernant la mémoire de travail. En revanche, une stimulation aléatoire avait plutôt tendance à détériorer les résultats de référence. Mieux vaut donc être précis…

L’essai ouvre ainsi des perspectives dans le traitement des troubles de la mémoire, notamment les formes de démence comme Alzheimer. « Dans ces affections, un grand nombre de cellules au niveau de l’hippocampe sont détruites. Une prothèse de mémoire pourrait pallier le déficit de ces zones endommagées. Cela devrait restaurer les fonction cognitives », explique le Dr Song au NewScientist. Ces résultats ont en tout cas été accueillis avec enthousiasme par plusieurs de ses pairs qui n’ont pas travaillé sur ce projet. « Des résultats excitants et potentiellement importants » pour Sinead Mullally, de l’Institut des neurosciences de l’université de Newcastle (Royaume-Uni).

Au-delà de l’intérêt de ces travaux pour remédier en partie aux déficits cognitifs, l’expérience pourrait ouvrir la voie à toutes sortes de manipulations neurales. L’équipe travaillerait d’ailleurs au renforcement d’autres fonctions. « Si vous pouvez améliorer telle région, vous pouvez appliquer la technique à d’autres structures », imagine le Dr Song. Ainsi des fonctions plus ou moins localisées du mouvement (cortex moteur) ou de la vision (cortex visuel). Plus inquiétant, il serait même techniquement possible de créer de faux souvenirs… En théorie, il « suffirait » de cerner le schéma neural de telle ou telle perception pour activer le cerveau en ce sens et lui faire croire en une perception qu’il n’a pas eue. « Nous avons commencé à travailler là-dessus », prévient Dong Song.

Crédit Image: La stimulation électrique de certains schémas d’activité cérébrale a permis de booster la mémoire chez l’humain.MONDOLITHIC STUDIOS/NOVAPIX/LEEMAGE

 

Source:Sciences et Avenir

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