Algérie: Les leçons oubliées des émeutes d’Octobre 1988

« Photographies d’une guerre sans images »
Le titre de ce livre n’a rien d’un jeu de mots. Car Michael von Graffenried a eu le grand mérite de se rendre dans une Algérie en plein abandon, à ses risques et périls. Pas une fois, pour un « coup » journalistique, mais souvent et longtemps : à dix reprises, de 1991 à 1998, il a accompagné la descente aux enfers de ce pays martyr. Mais que l’on ne s’attend pas ici à des clichés de massacres : le photographe suisse a aussi le courage de refuser le sensationnalisme. Ce que ses superbes panoramiques noir et blanc, pris à la volée, nous donnent à voir, c’est la souffrance quotidienne du peuple, écartelé comme l’est la société. Entre soldats, ninjas et miliciens, des hommes, des femmes, des enfants s’interrogent — nous interrogent — sur leur avenir. un témoignage digne et rare. (Hazan, Paris, 1998, 160 pages, 195 F.)





«Nous ne craignons personne. Les communistes et les syndicalistes sont nos seuls ennemis, et nous les avons matés. Il n’y a aucun risque d’Intifada en Algérie… » C’est ainsi qu’en janvier 1988 l’un des patrons de la Sécurité militaire résumait à une délégation palestinienne la situation politique intérieure. Quelques mois plus tard, le 4 octobre au soir, débutaient des émeutes d’une incroyable violence. Elles s’amplifieront le lendemain et plongeront, durant plusieurs jours, Alger puis d’autres villes dans un chaos sans égal depuis l’indépendance. En intervenant pour rétablir l’ordre, l’armée fait plusieurs centaines de victimes (1). Le traumatisme de la société est d’autant plus profond que des dizaines de jeunes sont sauvagement torturés après leur arrestation.




Ces sanglants événements vont pourtant modifier la vie politique. Après vingt-six ans de règne sans partage du FLN, l’autorisation du multipartisme, l’apparition d’une presse privée indépendante, l’explosion du mouvement associatif et l’intérêt marqué des télévisions occidentales pour l’Algérie marquent un long printemps. Il durera jusqu’en janvier 1992 : les militaires décident alors d’interrompre les élections législatives, dont le premier tour avait consacré la victoire du Front islamique du salut (FIS). La logique de l’affrontement armé entre pouvoir et islamistes s’installe.

Sur l’origine de ces émeutes, les thèses les plus contradictoires s’affrontent encore (2), mais Octobre 1988 offre avant tout la preuve sanglante que les dirigeants, quel que soit leur clan, ne connaissent pas leur propre peuple, à l’image des colons français qui étaient incapables de déceler les mutations des sociétés indigènes qu’ils asservissaient. Ainsi, en décidant de manipuler la population pour qu’elle manifeste son soutien au président Chadli Bendjedid, les proches de ce dernier ont joué aux apprentis sorciers. Si la foule, jeunes en tête, a vite occupé des rues étrangement abandonnées par une police désarmée quelques jours auparavant, c’est aux cris de « Chadli assassin ! » que les émeutiers ont déferlé dans le pays, s’attaquant aux symboles de l’Etat.

Il faudra cette révolte pour que le pouvoir — et notamment sa composante militaire — découvre l’importante influence du mouvement islamiste dans les quartiers populaires de la capitale algérienne. « Lorsque les leaders islamistes, dont certains de mes collègues ignoraient et le nom et l’existence (!), ont lancé des appels au calme dans les mosquées et que ces appels ont été entendus, nous avons réalisé qu’une partie de la population nous échappait depuis longtemps. Les responsables de l’époque affirmaient que le courant islamiste était marginal bien qu’un groupe armé ait fait son apparition en 1986 », avoue un ancien ministre.

Octobre 1988 représente une occasion manquée pour la démocratie, marquée par le refus du président Chadli de démissionner. Il sera réélu le 22 décembre de la même année, mais des officiels affirment aujourd’hui que M. Chadli Bendjedid, candidat unique au scrutin, n’aurait obtenu que 20 %, et non les 70 % de son score officiel. « Les militaires étaient conscients qu’une cassure avait eu lieu dans la société et que la population leur pardonnerait difficilement les morts d’Octobre. Ils ont été paralysés et ont hésité à chasser Chadli. C’est à ce moment-là que la route de l’Algérie a bifurqué vers la violence », explique un cadre du Front des forces socialistes (FFS).

Car, plus que tout, c’est l’irruption de la violence qui marquera les journées d’Octobre. Ce pays où le nombre de hold-up dépassait à peine la centaine en vingt années, où les armes à feu — fusils de chasse exceptés — étaient inexistantes, va redécouvrir la mort par balles et assister à la propagation incontrôlée de fusils automatiques aussi bien dans les zones rurales que dans les centres urbains.« Octobre 1988 a réveillé la violence qui a toujours marqué la société et que les années qui ont suivi l’indépendance avaient réussi à mettre en sommeil, explique un sociologue. Les jeunes qui ont dévasté les villes, les militaires qui ont rétabli l’ordre, les hommes de main qui ont torturé, ceux qui ont profité des événements pour piller les magasins d’Etat, tous ont eu recours à une violence qui perdure. C’est comme si nous avions retrouvé un mode de fonctionnement dans lequel seul le rapport de force et l’exercice de la violence comptent. Octobre 1988 aurait dû nous obliger à regarder notre personnalité en face et à dialoguer pour prévenir le pire. Or nous avons préféré croire à la chimère de la démocratie alors qu’inconsciemment nous savions tous que ces événements étaient certainement la répétition de quelque chose de plus grave et de plus violent qui allait venir rapidement. »




Cette violence latente va d’ailleurs encourager plusieurs milliers d’Algériens à tenter de réintégrer la nationalité française. Bien qu’entamé dès le début de l’année 1988, ce mouvement s’amplifie dans les jours qui suivent le retour au calme. Les consulats français, habituellement sollicités pour l’obtention des visas, seront pris d’assaut pour l’accomplissement de longues et difficiles démarches de réintégration (3)« Dans la mesure où je suis né avant 1962, je savais que je pouvais obtenir la nationalité française puisque mon père était français avant l’indépendance, raconte Ahmed, un enseignant qui a quitté son pays en 1992. Mais, jusqu’en octobre 1988, je n’avais jamais pensé à demander ma réintégration, même lorsque le visa a été instauré en 1986. Après les émeutes et l’apparition aussi soudaine qu’inattendue des islamistes, ma femme et moi avons pris peur : redevenir français représentait une protection pour l’avenir. Un passeport pour un départ au moment où tous les pays européens imposaient le visa d’entrée aux Algériens. »

La France aveugle





Ce « retour vers la France » a d’ailleurs touché l’ensemble de la société. Le « printemps algérien » a donc aussi été celui de l’ambassade de France à Alger. Artistes, écrivains, journalistes, universitaires, mais aussi hommes politiques et, plus rarement, militaires fréquentent dès lors de manière assidue la résidence. Si la plupart se contentent des incontournables recommandations pour les visas, d’autres vont carrément influer sur la politique algérienne de Paris.


« La France est devenue aveugle à partir d’octobre 1988. C’est à cette date que les élites francophones algériennes ont commencé à servir le discours selon lequel leur propre société refuserait l’islamisme et que jamais le FIS ou ses milices ne seraient capables de faire vaciller le régime », estime un diplomate algérien pour qui ce « parasitage » expliquerait, en partie, pourquoi Paris n’a pas vu venir la victoire du FIS aux législatives de décembre 1991.




Enfin, Octobre 1988 aura prouvé à nombre de décideurs algériens que leur pays n’était pas aussi protégé qu’ils le pensaient. S’ils affirment que les émeutes du 5 octobre « relèvent plus du complot interne que du complot externe (4) », ils reconnaissent en privé que plusieurs puissances étrangères ont profité des événements pour tester les capacités de réaction et de défense de leur pays. « Nous savons aujourd’hui que notre espace aérien a été violé à plusieurs reprises lors des événements d’octobre 1988, notamment lorsque nos troupes faisaient mouvement vers la capitale. La majorité des nos instruments de détection ont été alors brouillés, et c’est l’une des raisons pour lesquelles les avions civils ont été maintenus au sol », affirme un ancien officier supérieur.

« Cela nous avait profondément inquiétés, peut-être même plus que la situation dans les rues de la capitale. Il faut se rappeler que les Palestiniens projetaient alors de proclamer à Alger leur Etat (5)Les Israéliens ont-ils survolé le pays dans l’optique de bombarder le lieu où allait se tenir la session du Conseil national palestinien ? Tout portait à la croire. »

Pourtant, cette alerte ne sera pas suivie d’actions concrètes de redressement. Plus grave encore, la décision du président Chadli Benjedid de réorganiser, pour mieux les contrôler, les services de contre-espionnage — dont plusieurs cadres seront limogés après les événements — aura de sérieuses conséquences durant les années suivantes. « Octobre 1988 a désorganisé le monde du renseignement qui, par la suite, n’a pas toujours été capable de contrer au mieux les ingérences extérieures. Les relations entre le FIS et l’étranger en constituent le meilleur exemple », poursuit l’ancien officier supérieur. Pour lui, et pour nombre d’observateurs avertis, il ne fait ainsi pratiquement aucun doute que certains assassinats, notamment en 1992 et 1993, n’ont rien à voir avec les groupes islamistes armés. Des chercheurs de haut niveau, notamment en énergie nucléaire, vont être abattus dans un silence médiatique étonnant : ces actions provoqueront un net ralentissement du programme nucléaire.




« On pourrait comparer Octobre 1988 à une piqûre, conclut un exilé.Douloureuse au début, elle a provoqué ensuite une brève mais intense euphorie : nous avions la sensation de vivre dans le pays le plus dynamique du monde. Mais, au bout du compte, le rêve s’est transformé en cauchemar. »

Akram B. Ellyas

Journaliste.

(1Le bilan officiel est de 110 morts, alors que des sources médicales algériennes donnent le chiffre de 500, auxquels s’ajoutent plusieurs milliers de blessés. A ce jour, rares sont les familles de victimes qui ont reçu un quelconque dédommagement de la part de l’Etat.

(2La thèse la plus répandue aujourd’hui consiste à affirmer que c’est l’entourage du président Chadli Bendjedid qui a mis en oeuvre une stratégie visant à faire sortir le peuple dans la rue pour réclamer les réformes politiques et économiques dont ne voulait pas l’aile conservatrice du FLN.

(3Les Algériens nés en France, les conjoints de ressortissantes françaises ainsi que l’ensemble des personnes dont les parents possédaient la nationalité française lors de l’époque coloniale constituent les principales catégories de binationaux.





(4Lire l’ouvrage collectif Octobre, Editions du Matis, Alger, 1998.

(5Le Conseil national palestinien avait annoncé son intention de proclamer celui-ci à Alger le… 5 octobre 1988. Il le fera finalement le 15 novembre 1988.

 

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