ALZHEIMER : Un médicament contre le diabète permettant de « significativement inverser la perte de mémoire »

Un médicament développé pour traiter le diabète de type 2 pourrait s’avérer utile pour combattre la maladie d’Alzheimer. En effet, ce médicament a « significativement inversé la perte de mémoire » chez des souris atteintes de la maladie d’Alzheimer. À présent, les chercheurs souhaitent effectuer des tests sur des patients humains.

Un médicament développé pour traiter le diabète de type 2 pourrait s’avérer utile pour combattre la maladie d’Alzheimer. En effet, ce médicament a « significativement inversé la perte de mémoire » chez des souris atteintes de la maladie d’Alzheimer. À présent, les chercheurs souhaitent effectuer des tests sur des patients humains.

Ce traitement est très intéressant pour les scientifiques car il agit en protégeant les cellules cérébrales attaquées par la maladie d’Alzheimer de trois manières différentes, plutôt que de s’appuyer sur une seule approche. Et comme ce médicament a déjà été testé et approuvé pour une utilisation chez les humains, il pourrait être validé en tant que traitement efficace pour les personnes souffrant de la maladie d’Alzheimer bien plus rapidement que d’autres options encore au stade expérimental.

À l’heure actuelle, les résultats n’ont été observés que chez les souris, mais le médicament « pourra clairement être développé comme un nouveau traitement pour les maladies neurodégénératives chroniques comme la maladie d’Alzheimer », a déclaré l’auteur principal de l’étude, Christian Hölscher de l’Université de Lancaster au Royaume-Uni. « En l’absence de nouveaux traitements depuis près de 15 ans, nous devons trouver de nouvelles façons de lutter contre la maladie d’Alzheimer », a déclaré Doug Brown, de l’Alzheimer’s Society. « Il est impératif que nous examinions si des médicaments développés pour traiter d’autres maladies peuvent effectivement bénéficier aux personnes atteintes de la maladie d’Alzheimer ou d’autres formes de démence. Cette approche de recherche pourrait rendre disponibles bien plus rapidement de nouveaux médicaments prometteurs aux personnes qui en ont besoin », a-t-il ajouté.

Des recherches antérieures avaient déjà établi un lien entre le diabète de type 2 et la maladie d’Alzheimer : le diabète de type 2 est un facteur de risque pour la maladie d’Alzheimer et il semble également faire progresser cette dernière plus rapidement. Cela pourrait être le résultat de l’insuline qui n’entrerais pas correctement dans les cellules : il faut savoir que l’insuline représente un facteur de croissance connu pour protéger les cellules cérébrales, et une résistance à l’insuline a été observée dans les cerveaux des patients atteints de la maladie d’Alzheimer, en plus d’être le mécanisme biologique responsable du diabète de type 2.

Donc, depuis un certain temps, les chercheurs étudient si les médicaments qui traitent le diabète de type 2 peuvent également bénéficier aux personnes souffrant de la maladie d’Alzheimer. Ils ont notamment observé des résultats positifs chez l’être humain, avec un médicament contre le diabète plus ancien et connu sous le nom de liraglutide.

Mais à présent, il s’agit du premier médicament à « triple agoniste » à avoir été testé. Le médicament, auquel les chercheurs se réfèrent simplement en tant qu’ « agoniste triple récepteur », ou TA (triple agoniste), agit de multiples manières pour protéger le cerveau contre la dégénérescence, en activant les récepteurs GIP-1, GIP et glucagon en même temps.

Il a été démontré que la signalisation du facteur de croissance était altérée dans le cerveau des patients atteints de la maladie d’Alzheimer, l’idée étant que le médicament pourrait aider à redynamiser les cellules cérébrales endommagées et à les protéger contre des dommages supplémentaires.

Les chercheurs ont testé le traitement chez des souris qui avaient été génétiquement modifiées pour développer la maladie d’Alzheimer. Ils ont utilisé un labyrinthe pour mesurer la capacité d’apprentissage de l’animal ainsi que la formation de la mémoire, et ont constaté que le médicament avait « significativement inversé le déficit de la mémoire », expliquent les chercheurs.

À savoir que le médicament peut également :

  • Augmenter les niveaux de croissance cérébrale, qui protège le fonctionnement des cellules nerveuses
  • Réduire la quantité de plaques amyloïdes toxiques dans le cerveau
  • Réduire à la fois l’inflammation chronique et le stress oxydatif
  • Ralentir le taux de perte de cellules nerveuses

« Ces résultats très prometteurs démontrent l’efficacité de ces nouveaux médicaments à récepteurs multiples qui ont été initialement développés pour traiter le diabète de type 2, mais qui ont montré des effets neuroprotecteurs cohérents dans plusieurs études », a déclaré Hölscher.

Bien entendu, il reste encore un long chemin à parcourir avant de savoir si ce médicament aura le même effet chez les êtres humains. « D’autres tests et des comparaisons directes avec d’autres médicaments devront être effectués afin d’évaluer si ce nouveau médicament est plus efficace que les précédents », a ajouté Hölscher.

Mais le fait que ce médicament ait démontré de tels résultats est très prometteur pour la suite, et représente une excellente façon de débuter cette nouvelle année 2018 ! Après tout, dans le monde, environ 44 millions de personnes souffrent de la maladie d’Alzheimer ou d’une démence connexe. Il est donc vital de trouver de nouvelles options efficaces pour traiter ces maladies.

 

Source: Trust my science

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