Ce super-virus découvert dans des bassins d’acide pourrait guérir le cancer

Crédits : Wikimedia

L’étude se penche sur le virus Acidianus, découvert il y a peu dans les sources thermales du parc. Les virus peuvent prendre trois formes différentes : cylindriques, sphériques ou en forme de citron. Jusqu’à présent, la façon dont les virus en forme de citron étaient assemblés restait un mystère pour la recherche. Avec ce document rédigé entre autres par la biochimiste Rebecca Hochstein, ce n’est plus le cas. Ce dernier étudie l’assemblage du virus et la façon dont il éjecte l’ADN qu’il transporte dans les cellules hôtes. C’est cette éjection d’ADN qui intéresse Hochstein et son équipe, qui imaginent déjà des développements futurs, comme son application dans la thérapie génique.

Ce type de thérapie nécessite des vecteurs dont les virus sont les plus courants. En effet, ils peuvent reconnaître certaines cellules et transporter du matériel génétique à l’intérieur de celles-ci. Les scientifiques retirent les gènes pathogènes des virus et les remplacent par les gènes nécessaires pour stopper la maladie. De fait, Martin Lawrence, co-auteur et professeur au Département de chimie et de biochimie de la Montana State University, expliquait lui aussi à la Billingsgazette l’intérêt d’une telle découverte. « Imaginez que nous puissions charger ces virus d’une charge différente, comme un médicament. Que nous puissions cibler un endroit particulier dans le corps, comme une tumeur. Le virus pourrait alors livrer le médicament à cet endroit spécifique et ainsi rendre le médicament plus efficace, ou réduire les effets secondaires. »

Cependant, cette thérapie ne serait pas sans risque. Selon la Mayo Clinic – fédération hospitalo-universitaire de renommée mondiale basée dans le Minnesota –, les principaux risques seraient que le virus cible les mauvaises cellules et provoque un cancer ; qu’il retrouve sa capacité initiale et entraîne une maladie ; voire qu’il entraîne une réaction indésirable sur le système immunitaire. Des essais cliniques de thérapie génique sont toutefois en cours aux États-Unis, étroitement surveillés par la Food and Drug Administration (FDA) et par les Instituts nationaux de la santé.

Sources : PNAS / Mayoclinic / Billingsgazette

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