Des Carthaginois en Amérique

Des Carthaginois se seraient-ils lancés dans un voyage au long cours vers les côtes américaines? Explorons les indices et les preuves.

Des Carthaginois se seraient-ils lancés dans un voyage au long cours vers les côtes américaines? Explorons les indices et les preuves.

  • Les indices bibliques

Les mines légendaires du roi Salomon firent de lui le souverain le plus riche de son temps (900 avant JC) . Leur emplacement exact ou même leur existence a été vivement débattue, mais la Bible elle – même est assez bien prouvée dans les données historiques, d’ ailleurs il n’y a aucune mention de  » Les Mines du roi Salomon » – plutôt il déclare catégoriquement qu’il a demandé à son ami et allié du Nord , le roi Hiram d’embaucher des hommes pour construire et équiper sa flotte de navires. Hiram était maître de Tyr en Phénicie, dont les marins étaient réputés pour leurs voyages au large. La flotte a quitté le port de la mer Rouge Ezion Geber, et est revenue à Jaffa et à Tyr, les ports de la Méditerranée. Le voyage durait trois ans, et à chaque fois les navires revenaient chargés d’argent, d’ or, d’ivoire, de pierres précieuses, d’ épices et d’encens, et du rare bois « de santal ».

Phoenician_ship
Navire marchand phénicien

La flotte était allée vers les terres fabuleuses de Tarsis et d’Ophir, qui sont mentionnés ailleurs dans la Bible comme étant riche en métaux précieux et autres articles de commerce. Tarsis est située dans le sud – ouest l’ Espagne, les Grecs la nommaient Tartessus. Le livre de Jonas dans l’Ancien Testament fournit une preuve supplémentaire de l’emplacement de Tarsis, car Jonas a fui à Jaffa où il est monté à bord d’ un «navire de Tarsis » pour y fuir, il est donc évident que les voyages pourraient partir dans les deux sens, à l’est ou à l’ouest du Levant. Ophir n’a pas été découverte, mais le nom lui – même est un indice sur ses origines. Les Grecs, les Romains et les Egyptiens utilisaient rarement (voire jamais) un nom pour une ville se terminant par « IR » – tandis que les Phéniciens le faisaient – par exemple Agadir en Iberia, ou Rusaddir sur la côte nord de l’ Afrique.

Tarsis était une ville Celtibére, détruite par les Celtes à la solde de Carthage en 500 av. Carthage. Elle devint bientôt la puissance maritime prééminente en Méditerranée occidentale, jusqu’aux guerres désastreuses avec Rome. Josèphe, un historien hébreu du premier siècle de notre ère qui a servi les Romains pensait que Ophir était simplement Sophir, ou l’Inde et que le « chersonessus d’ or» était aussi l’ Inde. Les Grecs ont prouvé que cette idée était fausse, car ils y ont trouvé peu d or  et en fait la plupart de l’or , y était importé. En outre , il aurait été moins cher et plus rapide de s’y rendre par voie terrestre plutôt que de risquer le long voyage en mer de 3 ans, une longueur de temps ridicule si les navires avaient simplement fait un aller et retour de la mer Rouge à l’ Inde.

  • Des marins compétents

Après plusieurs conflits désastreux contre les Assyriens, le  Pharaon Neco (700BC) a cherché une nouvelle façon de vaincre ses dangereux ennemis du nord. Son premier projet était de construire un canal pour relier la Méditerranée à la mer Rouge, qui lui aurait permis de déplacer ses forces par mer , avec une grande rapidité et peut-être de vaincre ses ennemis. Pendant la construction, il eut un cauchemar, et quand il se tourna vers ses devins pour obtenir l’explication, ils lui dirent que le canal servirait en effet de route pour les armées et les marines – de ses ennemis! Il a immédiatement arrêté la construction sur le canal (qui ne serait pas achevée pendant des siècles!) Et il se tourna vers la possibilité de déplacer ses armées à travers le continent africain par mer pour déborder son ennemi. Il se tourna vers les marins renommés de Tyr, Sidon et Byblos (Phénicie). Il engagea une flotte pour naviguer de la mer Rouge autour du continent africain. La flotte prit la voile et mis trois ans pour terminer le voyage, revenant pendant le troisième été *. Un des participants a déclaré qu’ils avaient le Soleil   » à leur main droite» , comme ils passaient la pointe de l’ Afrique australe. Hérodote* a pris cela comme une «preuve» qu’ils mentaient, car cela était considéré comme impossible! Aujourd’hui , nous savons que c’est la preuve qu’ils ont vraiment voyagé au sud de l’équateur. Le voyage fut trop long pour être d’une grande utilité pour le déplacement rapide des armées alors l’idée a été oublié.

  • Hérodote note également que l’exploit de circumnavigation de l’ Afrique fut rapidement répété par les Carthaginois.

Les marins phéniciens quittaient leur patrie sur la rive orientale de la Méditerranée pour commercer, explorer et fonder des colonies. Malgré  la concurrence des Grecs, ils ont réussi à établir des colonies sur la plupart des îles de la Méditerranée, le long de la côte nord de l’Afrique (dont une nommée Carthago, Carchedon par les Grecs, ou Carthage – du punique Qart-Hadasht qui signifie «Nouvelle Ville ») et le long de la côte de l’ Espagne (alors appelée Iberia par les Grecs). Ils ont construit de petites colonies de commerce à travers le désert du Sahara et dispersés à travers le Moyen-Orient. Ils étaient en mesure de naviguer  grâce aux étoiles, contrairement à leurs homologues grecs et romains qui sans boussole étaient contraints de caboter.

  • La Nouvelle Ville

Carthage avait deux beaux ports, un intérieur et un extérieur, son emplacement (en Tunisie moderne , près de Tunis) était excellent pour la navigation commerciale et elle a prospéré. La mère patrie (Phénicié) tomba aux mains des conquérants, mais Carthage grandit en force. Vers 500 avant JC, elle envoya des explorateurs (Hanno et son frère Himilco) pour explorer et coloniser la côte atlantique de l’Afrique et la côte de l’Espagne, la France, et atteignit l’Angleterre, qu’ils appelèrent les «îles de l’étain» en raison du métal ils y échangeaient. Tarsis était devenu une rivale. et Carthage obtint des ses alliés celtibéres qu’ils détruisent complètement la ville à cette époque. Elle est entrée en conflit avec les Grecs en expansion pour la possession de l’ Espagne, de Marseille, France et de manière cruciale en Sicile. Les guerres ont duré 200 ans avec Carthage en sortie vainqueur en dépit de lourdes pertes. Massalia (aujourd’hui Marseille France) et Syracuse restèrent grecques , mais les autres régions devinrent carthaginoises ou puniques. (Punique est le terme utilisé par les Romains pour désigner les Carthaginois, de Phoinike, comme les Grecs les appelaient.) Carthage avait une bonne relation de travail avec les nombreux Celtes qui peuplaient l’Espagne, la France et les îles britanniques, les embauchant souvent comme soldats. (En fait , presque un tiers de l’armée d’Hannibal étaient des Celtes qui ont été facilement formés et équipés.)

port carthaginois
Reconstitution du grand port de Carthage

Nous devons garder à l’ esprit que l’histoire de Carthage a été écrite par ses ennemis. Elle les dépeint comme des gens mauvais, avides, cupides plus soucieux de l’ argent et de la tromperie que de l’ honneur. Dans une large mesure , c’est imméritée – même Hérodote se rappelle d’eux comme commerçant « avec une honnêteté parfaite» et tout succès de leur part à déjouer un ennemi a été décrit comme « tromperie ». Presque rien ne reste de leur littérature et de leur culture, sinon que certaines pièces devaient être de grande qualité. Certains érudits modernes affirment que Carthage n’avait pas de littérature, ce que je trouve douteux puisque l’alphabet vient des Phéniciens! Le roi Juba de Maurétanie fait référence aux livres puniques sur la géographie, comme le fait Salluste. A la chute de Carthage, plusieurs bibliothèques de livres puniques ont été donnés aux princes de Numidie comme butin de guerre par les Romains. Un traité sur l’ agriculture écrit par Mago (probablement le plus jeune frère d’Hannibal qui était nommé Mago, mais il y avait plusieurs autres personnes avec ce nom) était très apprécié par les Romains qui en ont finalement publié un certain nombre de copies. Il semble y avoir eu un style punique ou plutôt phénicien d’ architecture aussi, même le roi Salomon a embauché des Phéniciens pour construire son temple. Un style en fer à cheval ou en demi-cercle semble avoir été populaire. Les meubles et la métallurgie de Carthage était très estimée par ses voisins de négociation, et leurs produits de verre (y compris des perles de commerce) étaient très populaires. le vin de paille, une spécialité de Carthage était particulièrement prisé par les Romains. La fabrication de bijoux était importante, et un type de pierre semi-précieuse a même été nommée d’après Carthage, l’Escarboucle. Le commerce était plus important cependant. Carthage était très impliquée dans le commerce des épices, ainsi que dans presque tous les autres produits de base des temps anciens , comme les produits exotiques comme des billettes de bois d’ébène, l’ivoire, les métaux en lingots tels que le cuivre et le très-importante étain – vital pour la production de bronze – ainsi que les parfums, l’ encens, les chevaux mais aussi les esclaves. Le commerce de la mer était seulement une partie de son empire commercial, on oublie souvent que les caravanes terrestres parcourait un chemin stable de Carthage au plus profond de l’Afrique sub-saharienne et allait aussi loin que la Perse et l’Ethiopie.

Quand Alexandre eut terminé ses conquêtes, Carthage lui envoya des lettres de félicitations et des cadeaux – bien heureusement pour eux Alexandre n’a pas tourné son attention vers eux. Alexandre prévoyait apparemment une expédition contre Carthage et l’ Italie, mais il est mort d’une fièvre avant de terminer ses préparatifs. La question de savoir si oui ou non elle aurait pu être couronnée de succès est sans objet, mais cela aurait été un autre type de guerre que la conquête de la perse. Carthage ne serait pas probablement pas effondrer après une défaite ou deux, Alexandre était à court d’effectifs (il avait été contraint de réorganiser ses phalanges avec seulement les trois premiers rangs  Macédoniens, le reste étant des Perses et d’ autres origines) et comment se serait terminer le conflit naval est une inconnue. Rome et Carthage étaient alliées à cette époque, et les Romains aimaient à dire que si Alexandre était allé à l’ouest au lieu de l’est , il ne serait pas connu comme « Le Grand ».

carthaginois
Epave d’un navire de guerre punique

Lorsque Tyr est tombé aux mains de Nabuchodonosor en 576 avant JC, Carthage a pris l’ ascendant sur les autres colonies phéniciennes, y compris Utica et Gades (ou Agadir, la Cadiz moderne) , même si elles étaient plus anciennes, elle devint  de facto capitale de ce qui restait de l’empire phénicien. Carthage était protectrice et partenaire commercial de ces nombreuses colonies, et elle a envoyé des colons pour établir de nouvelles villes et dans certains cas de rétablir les anciennes colonies où les Tyriens avaient échoué ou avaient été conquis. En s’alliant avec les Étrusques d’Italie, les Carthaginois étaient en mesure d’exclure les Grecs de l’expansion vers l’ ouest de la Méditerranée et après la chute de Tarsis, Carthage tenait le détroit de Gibraltar fermé à tous les navires étrangers.

Hors les Périple de Hannon, les dossiers d’exploration et de colonisation ont été perdus lorsque Carthage a été complètement détruite par Rome en 146 av JC. Cependant, plusieurs des premiers traités entre Rome et Carthage existent encore (en latin) et un fait se distingue parmi les autres – Carthage spécifiquement ne voulait pas que les étrangers puissent voyager ou faire des affaires au – delà des colonnes d’Hercule (aujourd’hui Gibraltar) – du moins pas sans la permission du Sénat carthaginois et un fonctionnaire du gouvernement devait être présent.

  • Au début la consommation de drogues

Récemment, des tests ont été effectués sur d‘anciennes momies égyptiennes. Les résultats furent étonnants. On trouva des preuves d’utilisation de la cocaïne et de la nicotine – en dépit du fait que ce soient des produits du Nouveau Monde! Alors que certains chercheurs disent que ça doit provenir de certaines plantes d’ Afrique qui étaient semblables , mais qui ont aujourd’hui disparues (douteux, mais possible une plante d’intérêt particulier le « Silphium », était cultivée dans ce qui est maintenant la Cyrénaïque moderne en Libye – la plante était estimé pour ses nombreuses utilisations: médicaments et nourriture. la plante semble avoir été éteinte à l’époque de la conquête romaine de la région.) Le Silphium ressemble étroitement à l’anis (le goût de réglisse). Selon l’histoire acceptée, la Chine n’était pas connue de l’ouest jusqu’à l’empire romain pourtant des fils de soie authentiques ont été trouvés sur les anciennes momies égyptiennes aussi – prouvant que le contact avait une plus grande portée et était beaucoup plus ancien qu’on ne le pensait.

Le scénario le plus probable est qu’il y avait effectivement un contact entre l’ancien monde et le nouveau qui impliquait le commerce. À mon avis , les Egyptiens n’étaient pas particulièrement de bons marins, mais les Phéniciens l’étaient! Les routes commerciales qu’ils utilisaient étaient jalousement gardées secrètes, et leur capacité à naviguer était bien connu. Lorsque la mère patrie a été conquise, d’ abord par les Babyloniens et plus tard par les Perses et les Grecs, la plupart des les colonies de commerce se sont alliées avec Carthage. Les commerçants carthaginois ont été prompts à reproduire les exploits de navigation de leurs ancêtres et à combler le vide dans la fourniture de biens commerciaux. Les célèbres expédition « Ra » de Thor Heyerdahl ont prouvé que le voyage océanique était possible , même avec les bateaux de roseaux de l’ Egypte, mais la navigation sans boussole l’aurait rendue difficile.

Le Ra de Thor Heyerdhal
Le Ra de Thor Heyerdhal

On peut affirmer que les Egyptiens avaient une méthode pour utiliser les étoiles pour la navigation, comme les alignements parfaits des pyramides pourraient en en témoigner. Cependant, à mon avis les autres monuments comme le Sphinx et certains autres attribués aux Egyptiens sont en fait beaucoup plus anciens (environ 10000 ans.) Les Egyptiens se sont-ils aventurés sur les mers à la recherche de la terre « mythique » de Pount, un lieu qui peut être identifié avec Sumatra ( les théories abondent quant à son emplacement , y compris les Grands Lacs d’Amérique du Nord). Un point à considérer ici se trouve dans l’ une des anciennes inscriptions égyptiennes décrivant l’expédition de la reine Hatchepsout vers Pount – une partie du texte indique « … les Phéniciens … » mais le reste du texte est manquant. Il se trouve dans une partie du texte qui est censé être une déclaration du roi de Pount, indiquant le chemin secret de la terre et mentionnant les «étapes de myrrhe ». Le Pount connaissait déjà des Phéniciens à cette date précoce, et pour aller un peu plus loin les Pountais ont également été appelé Puoeni par les Egyptiens, qui est un terme aussi utilisé pour décrire Phéniciens. Les habitants du Pount étaient probablement des colons phéniciens.

Les Phéniciens étaient connus pour naviguer avec les étoiles, et en fait les Romains appelaient l’étoile du Nord l’ »étoile punique » en raison de son utilisation par ces derniers pour la navigation, mais ils ne comprenaient pas comment. Un autre outil de navigation appelée « gnomon » était utilisée pour déterminer la latitude de la position du Soleil Un capitaine grec de Massilia (maintenant Marseille en France) nommé Pythéas a appris l’utilisation de celui – ci et l’a utilisé dans son exploration de la côte atlantique de l’ Europe, en notant que l’Étoile du Nord n’est pas précisément au-dessus du pôle Nord ainsi que d’ autres remarquables observations scientifiques , comme le soleil de minuit à des latitudes élevées et des bancs de brouillard. A son retour à Massilia, Pythéas a été récompensé par ses concitoyens grecs avec le ridicule et le mépris, une attitude qui persiste à ce jour chez certains chercheurs.

Un autre instrument de navigation qui était probablement utilisé par les Phéniciens est le bâton de Jacob, un bâton de visée avec des montants fixés à différents endroits qui permettait à l’utilisateur de déterminer la latitude ainsi que la direction. En outre, une certaine habileté instinctive à la navigation océanique  était très probable chez ces marins –  à la façon infaillible dont les Polynésiens pouvaient trouver leur chemin vers de minuscules taches de terre dans la vaste étendue du Pacifique simplement en observant les formations de nuages, les vols d’oiseaux et même la façon dont les vagues se forment loin de la terre. Un court passage du livre grec « Argonautica » décrit l’homme qui devait être le navigateur pour le voyage fictif – comme étant en mesure de juger le temps pour la voile par le vent et le ciel, et la direction à la terre par la houle du mer.

  • Cartes de visites puniques

Les îles des Canaries ont des ruines de pierre, les plus imposantes sont des structures pyramidales «étagée»  situées en plein milieu d’une ville. Plus loin dans l’Atlantique, on a découvert aux Açores un trésor de pièces de monnaie carthaginoises, une statue du «cheval» de Carthage, et un certain nombre de fragments de poterie qui pourraient être puniques, mais qui ne peuvent pas être définitivement attribuée. La vue officielle? « Il se peut qu’un un navire qui se soit perdu. » Le long de la côte atlantique des Amériques un certain nombre de « stèles » (monuments) ont été trouvées, généralement inscrite en punique (bien sûr) , et beaucoup porte le nom de Hanno -l’amiral envoyé par Carthage avec la mission expresse d’explorer et de coloniser vers 500 av. JC. Curieusement, dans le nord de la Pennsylvanie près de la ville de Hawley, une de ces stèles de pierre, dit en punique ( « Ce monument placé par Hanno, ne défigure pas») bien sûr , cela doit être encore un autre « canular ». Certaines universités sont en train de dire que les gens de mer phéniciens pourraient avoir trafiquer sur toute la côte circumnavigable de l’ Afrique et la côte de l’ Inde dès 1500 à 1200 av. JC.

Les alphabets de l’ Inde, de Ceylan et Sumatra tous proviennent de l’alphabet phénicien – ce qui est une preuve éloquente de contact au long cours.

Ruines de Bimini
Ruines de Bimini

Des pétroglyphes se retrouvent partout aux Amériques, et des pièces de Carthage ont été découvertes dans un certain nombre d’états. Presque toutes ont été trouvées près des eaux navigables, et bizarrement toutes sont des premiers temps de Carthage, aucune n’est plus tardive que la Première Guerre punique. Une urne en métal avec des thèmes phéniciens et probablement un article commercial carthaginois ont été mis au jour près de la jonction des rivières Chenango et Susquehanna à New York.

Divers équipes enquêtant sur l’étrange formation de pierre au large de l’ île de Bimini ont découvert une épave, qui datait des années 1800 – lors de la recherche , ils ont constaté qu’elle recouvrait une épave plus ancienne, qui est positivement phénicienne et date d’environ 1000 av.JC! Le Dr J Manson Valentine de l’ université de Yale a confirmé les origines de l’épave. Des traces d’autres épaves antiques existent notamment un navire punique situé au large de la côte du Honduras, ainsi qu’une découverte au 19ème siècle « profondément enfoui dans le sable » au large du Mexique et une autre qui est encore non identifiée au large de la côte du Texas, ainsi que ce qui était probablement un navire de commerce romain au large de Beverly -Massachusetts.

Des amphores puniques ont été découvertes aux Amériques, ainsi que des armes, des lampes à huile,  des perles de  verre le long du fleuve Saint – Laurent entre autres trouvailles «anormales».

  • Les historiens anciens

L’historien syracusain (grec 100 av. jc) Diodore dit que les Carthaginois avaient une « grande île » située « loin dans l’océan Atlantique» – sur laquelle il y avait « beaucoup de montagnes» et «de grandes rivières navigables». La terre était riche en or, en pierres précieuses, en épices, etc. Il a déclaré que les Phéniciens l’avaient découverte «par accident» en fondant des colonies sur la côte ouest de l’ Afrique  et que certains navires se sont perdus. Les courants de l’ Atlantique courent tout droit vers l’Amérique du Sud à partir de cette région , de sorte qu’il serait possible pour un navire perdu de s’y rendre, et le voyage de retour serait facilitée en suivant les courants océaniques au nord puis vers l’ Est à travers l’océan.

En fait cela s’est produit au cours des dernières années, un petit bateau de pêche d’ Afrique s’est perdu dans une tempête et a échoué sur la côte du Brésil! En 1488 , un certain Jean Cousin de Dieppe France, qui naviguait sur la côte ouest de l’ Afrique a été pris dans une tempête et fut poussé jusqu’au au Brésil. (Ceci quatre ans avant le plus célèbre voyage de Christophe Colomb.) Les conditions météorologiques réelles rendent cela probable. Diodore dit qu’ils (les Carthaginois) ont  « gardé le secret »!

D’ autres historiens (Hérodote et Polybe) font allusion à son existence, et décrivent plus en détail quelques – unes des autres colonies. Le sud de la côte de Lixus a été décrit comme « grouillant » de colonies commerciales puniques. L’ une des colonies fondées par Hanno (500 av. JC) qui n’a pas été correctement située était Cerne, (prononcé Ker-neh), à mon avis , il s’agit aujourd’hui des îles Canaries. Lors de la première découverte par les Portugais, ils ont trouvé des gens à la peau claire, qui avaient des «écrits» qu’ ils se ne pouvaient pas lire et ils ont demandé à leurs visiteurs portugais s’ils le pouvaient. Ils ne savaient pas ce qu’était devenu leur «mère patrie» – et cela est pris par certains auteurs comme une preuve de l’ influence Atlante, mais je crois qu’il s’agissait des survivants de Cerne. Les Portugais ont été impressionnés par le peuple, ses ruines et ses écrits, et les ont tués – ils ont également brûlé les écrits, les pensant probablement hérétiques!

Pyramide aux Canaris
Pyramide aux Canaris

L’ un des œuvres les moins connues de Plutarque (* Moralia XII, sur la face de la Lune) indique aussi très clairement l’état des choses. Il cite un document qui a été trouvé dans les ruines de la vieille ville de Carthage. Il a déclaré que les Carthaginois connaissaient un «vrai continent » qui était situé loin à l’ouest de la Grande-Bretagne. Il a ajouté que des «Grecs» y étaient allés et qu’ils se mariaient avec les populations locales. Les «Grecs» qui vivaient là, se moquaient des gens en Europe, disant que c’était une simple île par comparaison – alors qu’ils vivaient sur le vrai continent qui bordait tout le côté ouest de l’Atlantique.

 

A mon avis la « grande île » était les Amériques! Je ne pense pas que les explorateurs carthaginois aient fondé de grandes villes dans le nouveau monde, ils étaient plus intéressés par le commerce. Il y a plusieurs arguments contre ces contacts, dont un est qu’il n’y a pas de ruines de tout. Cependant, il y a un certain nombre d’anciennes fortifications en terrassement dispersés à travers la vallée de la rivière Ohio , qui datent de (environ) 200 avant JC – l’âge d’or de Carthage. Certains artefacts étranges ont été retrouvés dans ces ruines (appelées la culture Hopewell) dont une amulette qui semble être en hébreu! Dans certains de ces ruines , il y a des structures de pierre longues qui ressemblent remarquablement comme aux «hangars à bateaux» utilisés par les marins puniques et grecs pour protéger leurs navires pendant les intempéries. L’ emplacement est un problème, mais ils sont près d’une rivière , même si la rivière est aujourd’hui trop peu profonde pour la navigation, elle peut très bien avoir été plus profonde alors.

keywedge1001

Il n’y a, soi-disant, aucune preuve écrite de contact antique, mais en fait , il y a un grand nombre d’écrits trouvés inscrits sur la pierre, dispersés à travers les Amériques. Un certain nombre d’entre eux ont été étudiés et déchiffrés, beaucoup par Barry Fell. (Ses livres America BC et Saga America se consacre beaucoup ce sujet ) Bien qu’ils soient presque toujours dénoncées comme « canulars » il est étrange qu’ils ne soient que récemment lisibles! La plupart était écrit dans une ancienne écriture celtique appelé Ogam, et un certain nombre sont en ibériques et  en puniques, et certains sont même en égyptien! Les techniques de navigation des anciens Celtes sont peu respectées, mais une autorité comme Jules César a décrit leurs navires comme étant assez grands par rapport à ses petits vaisseaux romains, et capables de se déplacer dans les mers ouvertes!

Mégalithes à Mystery Hill
Mégalithes à Mystery Hill

Les ruines étranges de Mystery Hill dans le New Hampshire sont en fait les restes d’une colonie puno-celtique. Aristote dit que les Carthaginois avaient tenté autrefois une colonisation de leur «terre secrète» , mais plus tard , ils se retirèrent, empêchant les autres de le tenter , y compris leurs alliés les Etrusques et même les Tyriens fuyant la colère d’Alexandre. Plusieurs autres sites en Nouvelle – Angleterre sont évidemment liés, ainsi que probablement des murs de pierre du sud de la Californie et plusieurs tribus amérindiennes du sud – ouest, comme les Pima et Zuni.

Plus d’information…

La véritable histoire des peuples phéniciens et notamment des Carthaginois n’a jamais été dite, presque tout ce que nous savons d’eux est ce qui a été écrit par leurs ennemis qui essayaient de les peindre dans les pires aspects possibles. Certaines de leurs pires pratiques telles que le sacrifice humain n’avaient vraiment rien d’ inhabituel pour de nombreuses cultures de leur temps. Même les Romains prétendument civilisés ont enterrés vivants deux Gaulois et deux Grecs pour remplir une prophétie qui disait qu’une partie de Rome devait être la maison de Gaulois – sans mentionner le massacre d’innombrables milliers d’hommes pour le divertissement! Les Carthaginois pourraient bien avoir été les explorateurs les plus accomplis de l’histoire.

 

Source: Phoenicia

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  40. An outstanding share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a co-worker who has been doing a little research on this. And he in fact bought me breakfast due to the fact that I found it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thank YOU for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending some time to discuss this subject here on your blog.

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  57. When I originally left a comment I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now whenever a comment is added I receive four emails with the same comment. Perhaps there is a way you can remove me from that service? Thank you!

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  59. After I originally commented I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on whenever a comment is added I recieve four emails with the exact same comment. Is there an easy method you are able to remove me from that service? Many thanks!

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  65. You’re so interesting! I don’t believe I have read something like this before. So wonderful to find another person with a few unique thoughts on this subject matter. Really.. thanks for starting this up. This site is one thing that is required on the web, someone with a little originality!

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  68. An impressive share! I’ve just forwarded this onto a co-worker who had been doing a little research on this. And he in fact bought me dinner because I discovered it for him… lol. So allow me to reword this…. Thanks for the meal!! But yeah, thanks for spending time to talk about this matter here on your web page.

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