Des scientifiques ont élaboré un classement mondial des pays les plus honnêtes

Deux scientifiques allemands ont élaboré un classement mondial de l’honnêteté, et ce parmi 23 pays. Le constat peut sembler évident, mais n’avait jamais été réellement quantifié : lorsque les institutions fonctionnent bien, les personnes sont, à titre personnel, plus honnêtes.

Les travaux de recherches ont été réalisés par deux scientifiques des universités de Munich et de Bonn (Allemagne), dont les résultats ont été publiés dans la revue Nature le 9 mars 2016. Le but était de mesurer, par le biais de neuf indicateurs économiques, institutionnels et sociétaux, le niveau d’honnêteté relatif à 23 pays choisis sur tous les continents.

Les indicateurs choisis par les chercheurs sont variés, parmi eux les droits politiques, l’économie souterraine, le contrôle du pouvoir exécutif, la lutte contre la corruption, les processus d’élection ou encore l’efficacité gouvernementale. Un classement a donc été élaboré par le biais de ces données, dans lequel la France et les États-Unis sont par exemple absents.

Le classement place la Suède en tête, suivie du Royaume-Uni, de l’Allemagne et de l’Autriche. À l’inverse, les trois derniers et considérés comme les « pays les plus malhonnêtes » sont la Chine, le Guatemala et le Maroc, bon dernier.

L’étude allemande n’est pas destinée à décerner des récompenses ou « descendre » certains états, surtout qu’il existe 197 pays au total et que le classement n’en laisse apparaitre que 23. Cependant, il s’agit d’avoir des indications sur le rapport entre l’honnêteté des populations avec le fonctionnement politique et la justesse des institutions.

L’étude a été menée en prenant en compte la participation de 2568 ressortissants des pays figurant dans le classement. Les volontaires ont été soumis à un test psychologique qui se révèle être un standard. En effet, les participants devaient, à l’abri des regards, tirer un dé et noter leurs résultats. Lorsqu’ils jetaient le dé, le 1 leur rapportait 1 euro, le 2, 2 euros, etc., sachant que le 6 ne rapportait rien. Sur un grand nombre de tirages, les résultats doivent être assez uniformément répartis entre le 1 et le 6. Cependant, comme les valeurs 4 et 5 rapportent le plus d’euros et que les participants notent eux même leurs résultats, ceci est un véritable indicateur d’honnêteté.

Ainsi, les chercheurs ont observé des déséquilibres, avec plus de 4 et de 5 que de 1 et de 6. Des corrélations ont été faites entre la nationalité des moins honnêtes parmi les volontaires et la « malhonnêteté » de leur pays d’origine. Selon les chercheurs, le fonctionnement des institutions influence l’honnêteté des ressortissants. Ils préconisent, comme beaucoup d’autres, des institutions transparentes, un comportement fiable des élites ainsi que des processus électoraux intègres.

Voici un tableau tiré du document universitaire disponible en ligne, donnant les valeurs de la « prévalence des violations des règles, des variables économiques et institutionnelles, ainsi que le contexte culturel des indicateurs » :

圖片 3


Sources : Pour la Science – Cerveau & Psycho
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