Harcèlement scolaire : un brillant film d’animation japonais explore la question

 



Le tout jeune distributeur Art House Films s’est donné comme mission de défendre le cinéma japonais de qualité et de lui donner la visibilité qu’il mérite.  Son nouveau défi : faire sortir dans le plus de salles françaises possibles « Silent Voice », un film d’animation qui aborde un phénomène de société répandu autant au Japon que dans l’Hexagone, celui du harcèlement scolaire. Il traite en parallèle de la différence qui isole un individu, ici en raison de son handicap.

Nishimiya est une élève douce et attentionnée. Chaque jour, pourtant, elle est harcelée par Ishida au prétexte de sa surdité. Dénoncé pour son comportement, le garçon est à son tour mis à l’écart et rejeté par ses camarades. Des années plus tard, il apprend la langue des signes… et part à la recherche de la jeune fille dans une démarche de rédemption.



 

Voici le point de départ de Silent Voice, film d’animation tiré d’un manga en 7 tomes écrit par Yoshitoki Ôima. Édité en France par Ki-oon en 2015, le manga a su trouver son public et toucher 250 000 lecteurs. Il a d’ailleurs reçu le prix du meilleur manga à la Japan Expo 2017. Il aborde sans détour les thématiques du handicap (la surdité) et du harcèlement scolaire en se plaçant du coté du harceleur qui devient victime puis se remet en question. Yoshitoki Ôima a commencé à écrire son manga alors qu’elle n’avait que 19 ans et il lui a permis de remporter en 2008 le premier prix à un concours de jeunes auteurs. Sa sensibilisation au handicap lui vient de sa mère, interprète en langue des signes, qui l’a aidée à dessiner les échanges entre les personnages.


Le manga « A Silent Voice » a finalement été adapté en film d’animation par la réalisatrice Naoko Yamada qui a su s’approprier l’histoire pour la porter fidèlement à l’écran avec tact et poésie. Sorti au Japon en 2016, il a atteint la seconde place du box-office dans sa catégorie. Il a aussi remporté plusieurs prix, comme celui du meilleur film d’animation aux Mainichi Film Awards ainsi que le prix du meilleur film d’animation de l’année 2017 par l’académie du Japon (l’équivalent des Césars). Preuve que le sujet intéresse et interpelle plus d’une personne. Toutefois, sa réalisatrice souhaite que le spectateur ne se focalise pas uniquement sur le handicap et le harcèlement mais qu’il soit à l’écoute des sentiments qui animent les personnages et de leur psychologie, sans les juger ou les prendre en pitié. Pour Naoko Yamada le vrai sujet de « Silent Voice » se trouve être la Nature humaine à travers ce qu’elle engendre de bien ou de mal.


 

Le harcèlement scolaire, un phénomène longtemps passé sous silence au Japon

Au Pays du Soleil Levant, le phénomène de l’ijime (« brimade ») est connu depuis longtemps. Sous un prétexte quelconque – le handicap dans Silent Voice – un élève est pris pour cible par un ou plusieurs de ses camarades et va subir humiliations, violences, racket… lui rendant la vie infernale. Un moyen inconscient pour les bourreaux de se défouler dans un système scolaire qui met les élèves sous pression constante. Le harcèlement se déroule au vu et au su de tous, élèves, professeurs, administration, qui font semblant de ne rien voir et en minimisent les conséquences. Conséquences qui peuvent pourtant être graves, conduisant la personne harcelée à la dépression, à stopper sa scolarité et se replier sur soi (jusqu’à devenir un hikikomori) et, dans les cas extrêmes, à se suicider.

Le sujet fut longtemps passé sous silence dans la société nippone privilégiant le groupe au dépens de l’individu normalisé ; la honte et la culpabilité rejaillissant sur la victime qui ose « sortir du rang » ou « être différente ». Mais le tabou se lève peu à peu, le Ministère japonais de l’éducation se penche sur le phénomène et des campagnes d’information voient le jour pour sensibiliser la population et le faire disparaître. Des films, des mangas (Life), des série-télés, des livres d’anciennes victimes se sont aussi attelés à le dénoncer.


700 000 élèves harcelés en France

En France, des situations similaires existent, et c’est seulement en 2015 que le ministère de l’Éducation Nationale s’est saisi du problème en lançant la campagne « Non au harcèlement » après avoir estimé à 1 sur 10 le nombre d’élèves (soit environ 700 000) victimes de brimades, humiliations, violences physiques et morales de la part de leurs camarades. Les élèves sont désormais incités à être vigilants envers leurs camarades pour déceler et rapporter les cas de harcèlement avant qu’un drame ne se produise. Mais avec l’avènement des réseaux sociaux, le phénomène a pris des tournures encore plus insidieuses, les plus jeunes pouvant être moqués même en dehors de l’école, mettant encore plus à mal leur intimité.


En France « Silent Voice » fut présenté au Festival International du Film d’Animation d’Annecy en 2017 mais malgré le succès du manga en librairie et les problèmes de société très actuels qu’il aborde, le film a du mal à trouver le chemin des salles obscures. Une campagne de crowdfundinga été lancée pour soutenir sa sortie dans le plus grand nombre de salles françaises et impacter le plus de personnes possibles. La campagneambitionne de financer un doublage français, une version adaptée aux sourds et malentendants et une version en audio-description. Elle servira aussi à créer des supports pédagogiques pour les établissements scolaires qui pourront montrer le film à leurs élèves et les sensibiliser sur le harcèlement et le handicap. Plus les dons seront importants, plus nombreuses seront les salles à projeter Silent Voice. Enfin, 10 % de l’argent récolté sera reversé à une association qui lutte contre le harcèlement scolaire.


La sortie en salle de Silent Voice est programmée pour le 22 août 2018.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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