Il y a 30 ans les USA abattaient un avion de ligne Iranien avec 290 passagers en toutes impunités



290 morts, dont 66 enfants: il y a 30 ans jour pour jour l’une des plus graves catastrophes aériennes de l’histoire se produisait au-dessus du Golfe.

Le 3 juillet 1988 le croiseur américain USS Vincennes a abattu un avion de ligne iranien Airbus A300B2 avec des missiles antiaériens. Tous les passagers ont été tués. Retour sur les origines de cette tragédie.

Deux missiles

Le 3 juillet 1988, un avion de la compagnie aérienne Iran Air, vol 655, se rendait de Téhéran à Dubaï avec une escale à Bender-Abbas où était également basée l’aviation militaire iranienne. L’Airbus, muni d’un transpondeur civil, suivait son itinéraire habituel dans un couloir aérien international. La durée de vol au-dessus du Golfe était d’environ 30 minutes.

Deux missiles antiaériens de l’USS Vincennes ont alors touché l’avion à 4.000 m d’altitude. Les explosions l’ont littéralement coupé en deux. Aucun des passagers n’aurait pu survivre. Selon le rapport gouvernemental des USA, l’équipage du navire n’avait pas correctement identifié l’Airbus civil et l’avait pris pour un chasseur F-14 Tomcat de l’armée de l’air iranienne effectuant une attaque.

Le croiseur USS Vincennes

Le croiseur lance-missiles USS Vincennes faisait partie d’un groupe naval américain accomplissant des missions pour protéger les convois commerciaux et les cargos pétroliers contre la marine iranienne. En soutien à l’Irak, les USA avaient envoyé leurs navires dans le Golfe au milieu de l’année 1988.

L’USS Vincennes a été mis en service en 1985. Le croiseur transportait des missiles de croisière Tomahawk, des munitions d’artillerie, des torpilles et des missiles antiaériens guidés SM-2MR. Les opérateurs du système moderne Aegis étaient responsables de l’identification et du pointage des cibles aériennes.

Difficile de se tromper

Certes, une erreur des tireurs américains n’est pas à exclure compte tenu de la situation très nerveuse dans le Golfe. Cependant, expliquent les experts, un opérateur expérimenté d’une station radar déterminerait facilement le type de l’appareil même sans disposer de toutes les informations.

«Certes, les erreurs sont inévitables, notamment dans les zones où se déroulent des activités militaires. Mais tout de même, prendre un avion de ligne pour un avion de guerre — cela restera évidemment sur la conscience des Américains. Un détail important dans cette situation consiste à savoir sur quelles informations a été basée la décision de tirer sur l’avion. En règle générale, un opérateur reçoit des informations radar quand il identifie la situation primaire. Un militaire expérimenté, même avec un localisateur à deux coordonnées, peut déterminer immédiatement le type de l’appareil, son altitude et sa vitesse pour comprendre qu’il ne s’agit pas du tout d’un chasseur mais d’un avion de ligne qui circule via des couloirs établis», explique l’expert militaire Mikhaïl Khodarenok, qui a longtemps servi dans la défense antiaérienne.

Si le chef d’unité reçoit l’information secondaire sous forme de formulaires, ces données sont reflétées avec des chiffres et des indications conventionnelles. «C’est manifestement une lacune du commandement américain à tous les niveaux. On peut les accuser de non-professionnalisme, de préparation insuffisante des effectifs, de ne pas avoir utilisé tous les moyens pour déterminer le type de l’avion», souligne Mikhaïl Khodarenok.


En temps de paix, ajoute-t-il, dans les zones de circulation active d’avions civils les effectifs des unités antiaériennes essaient de ne pas tirer sur les avions transgresseurs sur la seule base des informations radar. D’abord, un chasseur décolle pour s’approcher de l’appareil et établir un contact visuel. Le pilote contacte cet avion sur les fréquences internationales et entre en dialogue pour connaître ses intentions. Rien de cela n’a été fait alors que les Américains avaient tous les moyens à disposition.

Les héros récompensés

Le gouvernement américain ne reconnaît toujours aucune infraction du côté de l’équipage du croiseur USS Vincennes. Aucun des marins n’a été sanctionné pour l’avion de ligne abattu. De plus, l’équipage du croiseur a été récompensé pour un accomplissement juste et précis de la mission.

La Maison blanche a exprimé des condoléances suite à la catastrophe. Mais le président américain Ronald Reagan a qualifié l’assassinat de presque 300 personnes d’«action défensive nécessaire».

Par la suite, en 1996, les Américains ont finalement accepté de verser aux familles des passagers défunts près de 62 millions de dollars dans le cadre d’un accord avec l’Iran sur le retrait de la plainte déposée contre les USA à la Cour internationale de justice.

 

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