La pierre de Soleil des navigateurs vikings ne serait pas un mythe

On ignore toujours comment s’y sont pris les navigateurs vikings pour découvrir l’Amérique mais on vient peut-être de découvrir un indice : la « pierre de Soleil » mentionnée dans une saga scandinave, qui indiquerait la position du Soleil même par temps couvert, pouvait fort bien être un spath d’Islande selon des études conduites par des physiciens français et leurs collègues.

On ignore toujours comment s’y sont pris les navigateurs vikings pour découvrir l’Amérique mais on vient peut-être de découvrir un indice : la « pierre de Soleil » mentionnée dans une saga scandinave, qui indiquerait la position du Soleil même par temps couvert, pouvait fort bien être un spath d’Islande selon des études conduites par des physiciens français et leurs collègues.

Avec l'octaèdre de fluorine verte placé derrière, on voit bien la biréfringence de la calcite optique ou spath d'Islande. © www.carionmineraux.com

En 1967, l’archéologue danois Thorkild Ramskou a proposé une théorie ingénieuse pour expliquer comment les Vikings ont pu naviguer sans encombre jusqu’en Amérique du Nord, malgré des cieux souvent couverts et en l’absence d’une boussole, vers l’an 1000. Selon lui, les Vikings auraient pu faire comme d’autre espèces vivantes qui, à l’image du papillon monarque, exploitent la polarisation de la lumière du soleil pour se diriger. Pour ce faire, les Viking auraient mis à profit les propriétés optiques de certains cristaux.

De fait, on trouve un intriguant passage dans la saga de Hrafn Sveinbjarnarson où il est dit à peu près ces mots : « Le temps était couvert et orageux… Le roi regarda autour de lui et ne vit ciel bleu… Alors le roi prit la pierre de soleil et la tenant au-dessus de lui, vit d’où le Soleil brillait ». Mais que serait-donc cette fameuse pierre de Soleil ?

Il ne s’agirait pas bien sûr du Cube cosmique, associé là aussi à une saga scandinave dans le film Captain America, mais depuis longtemps, on pense qu’il pourrait s’agir du spath d’Islande. Sa biréfringence est précisément une conséquence du phénomène de polarisation de la lumière et ce cristal a joué un rôle non négligeable dans la découverte et la construction de la théorie de la lumière de Descartes à Maxwell, en passant par Fresnel et Arago.

Wilhelm von Haidinger (1795-1871) était un minéralogiste, géologue et physicien autrichien. On lui doit la découverte en 1844 de ce qu'on appelle les brosses d’Haidinger. C'est un phénomène entoptique léger, où l’on peut distinguer un motif bleu et jaune caractéristique. Il est associé à l’observation d’une lumière polarisée à faible longueur d’onde. © Wikipédia-domaine public

Il se trouve que l’œil humain perçoit dans certaines situations la polarisation de la lumière, c’est-à-dire le fait que les vibrations transversales du champ électromagnétique de certaines ondes lumineuses se fassent selon un axe donné. Ce phénomène avait été observé en 1844 par Wilhelm von Haidinger lorsqu’il étudiait la lumière polarisée passant à travers des cristaux. Il constata que des sortes de taches jaune-bleu, appelées depuis les brosses d’Haidinger, se manifestaient sur sa rétine. Il s’agit d’un exemple de phénomènes entoptiques qui sont des effets visuels dont la source est dans l’oeil lui-même.

https://youtu.be/fqm1ejDzWqk

Une reconstitution d’un bateau viking par le Lofotr Viking museum en pleine navigation en 2006. © Lofotr Vikingmuseum-geirarej-YouTube

Le grand physicien Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz s’est penché sur ce phénomène, comme l’ont fait plus récemment deux physiciens français, Guy Ropars et Albert Le Floch, qui ont même pensé que les Vikings étaient peut-être capables de voir à l’œil nu la polarisation de la lumière du Soleil. Avec leurs collègues, les deux chercheurs viennent aujourd’hui de publier un nouvel article dans lequel ils étudient cette fois la possibilité d’utiliser la polarisation de la lumière du Soleil au moyen d’un cristal de calcite optique pour naviguer.

La biréfringence de la calcite optique et la dépolarisation

Ils montrent, calcul et expérience à l’appui, que l’on peut effectivement utiliser le spath d’Islande pour localiser le Soleil dans le ciel même lorsque celui-ci est couvert. Il faut pour cela utiliser le cristal comme un dépolariseur. En fait, l’idée elle-même et la méthode sont connues depuis longtemps, Leif Karlsen a par exemple écrit un livre sur le sujet, mais des controverses persistaient sur la possibilité d’utiliser cette calcite optique aux latitudes arctique, compte tenu de la polarisation réelle de la lumière. En pratique, il n’était pas certains que les Vikings pouvaient vraiment naviguer de cette façon.

La lumière du Soleil elle-même n’est pas vraiment polarisée lorsqu’elle atteint les sommets de l’atmosphère terrestre. Mais lorsqu’ elle entre en interaction avec ses molécules, elle le devient. Si l’on regarde le ciel à travers un spath d’Islande, ses propriétés de biréfringence font que l’on obtient deux images différentes. Surtout, un faisceau lumineux entrant ressort sous la forme de deux faisceaux dont l’un a perdu sa polarisation. Leurs intensités sont en général différentes mais lorsque l’on tourne le cristal, ces deux intensités finissent par être les mêmes, ce qui permet alors de localiser le Soleil sur la voûte céleste. Selon Guy Ropars et Albert Le Floch, une précision de l’ordre de quelques degrés peut être atteinte, même dans des conditions de luminosité crépusculaires.

Remarquablement, la découverte d’un cristal de spath dans une épave britannique du XVIe siècle découverte au large de l’île anglo-normande d’Aurigny (Alderney en anglais) vient apporter de l’eau au moulin des chercheurs. La masse métallique des canons de ce navire pouvait altérer par induction le champ mgnétiquemesuré localement dans de telles proportions que des erreurs de navigation importante pouvaient en résulter. L’utilisation d’un compas optique basé sur la calcite optique pouvait donc être une nécessité et cela expliquerait sa présence à bord du navire.

Bien sûr, nous n’avons toujours pas de traces écrites directes ou de preuves manifestes que les Vikings de l’an 1000 utilisaient un tel compas optique mais nous savons désormais que la physique l’autorise.

 

 

Source: Futura Sciences

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