Le mammouth pourrait être ressuscité pour lutter contre le réchauffement climatique

Il est désormais possible de reproduire l’ADN d’un mammouth laineux, et peut-être même de ramener une icône de la période glaciaire à la vie.

Crédit image de couverture: Un employé de musée peigne les poils du mammouth laineux.PHOTOGRAPHIE DE JONATHAN BLAIR, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CREATIVE

Jurassic Park imaginait un futur dans lequel les dinosaures étaient ramenés à la vie. La fiction serait sur le point de devenir réalité alors que des généticiens cherchent le moyen de ressusciter le mammouth laineux.

Cet herbivore de la période glaciaire, dont les éléphants d’Asie sont les lointains cousins, a vécu sur plusieurs territoires du Nord, protégé du froid extrême par une épaisse fourrure. L’animal hirsute s’est éteint il y a environ 4 000 ans mais la révolution génétique actuelle qui combat les effets de l’âge, les maladies les plus répandues et la création de « bébés sur mesure », pourrait changer cet état de fait.

Dans son nouveau livre, Wooly : La vraie histoire de la recherche pour relancer l’une des espèces les plus iconiques de l’histoire (Woolly: The True Story Of The Quest To Revive One Of History’s Most Iconic Extinct Species), Ben Mezrich nous entraîne des laboratoires aux steppes de Sibérie où les scientifiques étudient les possibilités de faire revivre le mammouth laineux, menaçant potentiellement l’écosystème présent.

National Geographic s’est entretenu par téléphone avec Mezrich ; il nous a expliqué pourquoi certains scientifiques pensent que la résurgence des mammouths laineux pourrait aider à combattre le changement climatique et a exposé les craintes éthiques qui accompagnent ces grandes ambitions.

L’idée de ressusciter un mammouth laineux semble sortir tout droit d’un roman de Michael Crichton [auteur entre autres de Jurassic Park, ndlr]. Est-ce vraiment possible ? Est-ce que cela révolutionnerait la science telle qu’on la connaît ?

C’est vrai que ça ressemble à du Michael Crichton [rires]. Mais c’est vrai ! Ce qu’il imaginait dans Jurassic Park est maintenant scientifiquement possible. Nous avons désormais les outils génétiques, comme CRISPR qui est en soi une révolution pour les sciences génétiques. Ils nous permettent de placer des gènes individuels qui codent des caractéristiques spécifiques dans le génome des êtres vivants.

C’est que cherche à faire le projet Woolly Mammoth. Avant, nous recherchions des informations dans l’ADN. Maintenant nous pouvons le composer. Le monde dans lequel nous vivons est très différent du monde de 2050, surtout si l’on tient compte de ce que l’on développe aujourd’hui en laboratoires. On parle de différents types de technologies, d’intelligence artificielle et de robotique. Mais je crois que ce n’est rien comparé aux avancées constatées en biologie. À partir du moment où vous pouvez re-créer des gènes, reconstruire les bases de toute forme de vie, il n’y a pas de limite à ce que vous pouvez faire.Une défense de mammouth immaculée est découverte toujours attachée au crâne.PHOTOGRAPHIE DE EVGENIA ARBUGAEVA, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CREATIVE

La force motrice de ce projet est le généticien américain George Church. Pourriez-vous nous en dire plus sur cet homme et sur ce projet ?

Il sort tout droit d’un film hollywoodien ! Il fait 2 mètres, a une énorme barbe et des cheveux poivre et sel. Il ressemble un peu à l’image qu’on se fait de Dieu…[rires]. Il a grandi près de Tampa, en Floride, a été élevé par sa mère. À partir de l’âge de 12 ans, George a commencé à penser qu’il avait été envoyé du futur et que sa mission était de transformer le monde pour lui donner les traits de son univers d’origine.

C’est un peu le Einstein moderne. Il a été le plus jeune scientifique à faire partie du Human Genome Project, dans le cadre duquel il a développé des moyens plus rapides de séquencer les génomes humains.

L’autre pôle de cette initiative est la steppe sibérienne. Parlez-nous de l’équipe père-fils formée par Sergei et Nikita Zimov et l’idée derrière la création du parc Pleistocène.

La grande question est : « Pourquoi ressusciter un mammouth laineux ? » La raison, c’est la Russie. Les plaines sibériennes, ou les steppes, sont ces vastes étendues de terre composées de pergélisol, où les populations animales sont sur le déclin. Cela n’a pas toujours été le cas. Et le problème, c’est que la toundra est une sorte de bombe à retardement. Il faudrait brûler toutes les forêts du monde trois fois pour obtenir la quantité de carbone prise au piège dans le pergélisol. Et au fur et à mesure que le monde se réchauffe, le pergélisol fond et libère le CO2

Sergei et son fils Nikita mènent une expérience depuis les années 1980. Ils ont délimité une zone de la toundra dans laquelle ils ont réintroduit les animaux de l’époque du Pléistocène, comme des rennes, des bisons et des chevaux Yakut. Ils ont également apporté un tank soviétique pour imiter un mammouth. Ce qu’ils ont découvert, c’est que vous pouvez réduire la température du pergélisol jusqu’à 9.4°C en réintroduisant ces animaux. Parce que les grands herbivores encouragent la croissance des graminées des steppes, qui à leur tour ont un effet albédo élevé. Ces graminées de couleur claire reflètent la lumière du soleil dans l’atmosphère comme un miroir, réduisant la chaleur absorbée dans la Terre, les températures et donc la fonte du pergélisol.

J’ai été surpris d’apprendre qu’il y avait assez de mammouths laineux dans le pergélisol sibérien pour satisfaire des trafiquants d’ivoire…

Les mammouths laineux refont surface à mesure que le pergélisol fond. Leurs défenses valent environ 250 000 $ chacune (environ 220 000 €). Il y a donc un vrai trafic d’ivoire de mammouth, en particulier en Chine, ce qui est légal parce que ce n’est pas une espèce menacée mais une espèce éteinte. La récolte est très dangereuse. Il faut naviguer à travers l’eau gelée pour arriver à ces minuscules îlots où les carcasses sont les plus abondantes et creuser pour extraire les défenses. Une seule défense permet à un village de subvenir à ses besoins annuels.Représentation de mammouth dans une tente.PHOTOGRAPHIE DE EVGENIA ARBUGAEVA, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC CREATIVE

Comment résumeriez-vous les défis scientifiques que représente la résurrection d’un mammouth laineux ?

Alors d’abord, vous devez séquencer l’ADN d’un mammouth préhistorique. Les carcasses gelées remontent à la surface. Vous en extrayez un échantillon et vous séquencez le génome. Une fois le séquençage fait, vous connaissez le génome du mammouth. Vous choisissez donc les caractéristiques les plus importantes qui font du mammouth l’animal qu’il est. 99 % de son génome est similaire à celui de l’éléphant d’Asie. Le laboratoire de recherche dirigé par Church est donc convaincu que si un mammouth laineux s’accouplait avec un éléphant d’Asie, ils pourraient se reproduire. Contrairement à Jurassic Park, vous ne clonez pas un mammouth laineux. Le matériel disponible dans les carcasses s’est dégradé pendant les 3 000 à 12 000 ans au cours desquels il a été irradié et malmené par l’érosion naturelle.

Au lieu de cela, vous synthétisez les gènes, vous les placez dans un embryon d’éléphant d’Asie, vous replacez l’embryon dans le ventre de la génitrice et celle-ci donnera naissance à un mammouth laineux. Le laboratoire de Church travaille aussi sur le projet d’un ventre synthétique pour assurer la gestation. Leur objectif est d’obtenir un premier bébé d’ici deux à trois ans.

L’idée de « fabriquer » des nouvelles formes de vie en laboratoire n’est pas sans rappeler Frankenstein, ou une tentation de se prendre pour Dieu. D’un point de vue éthique, que penser de ces avancées scientifiques ?

C’est une grande question.Il faut anticiper tous les aspects éthiques avant de se lancer dans une telle entreprise parce que la science peut prendre de l’avance sans se soucier de la morale. Dans ce cas, je crois que ramener à la vie des espèces éteintes comme le mammouth est moins de l’ordre de se prendre pour Dieu que de rectifier une erreur que l’être humain a commise. La plupart des conservationnistes seraient, je pense, d’accord avec ça. Et les scientifiques se prennent pour Dieu de façon quotidienne. Quand vous tentez de soigner le cancer ou d’éradiquer la malaria, vous interférez dans les processus de vie.

Ce qu’il y a de plus inquiétant, c’est qu’aucune entité n’encadre ces recherches. Partout dans le monde, il existe des laboratoires travaillant sur ce genre de sujets. Plusieurs pays sont impliqués et la plupart des scientifiques estiment que leurs recherches supplantent les autorités locales ou même étatiques.

À la fin de votre livre, vous racontez qu’une équipe russo-coréenne a trouvé un mammouth congelé et que du sang figé dans ses veines était encore visible. Est-ce vrai et est-ce que leur projet est différent du projet américain ?

L’entreprise coréenne Sooam Biotech a été créée par un scientifique qui a depuis été discrédité pour avoir prétendu avoir cloné des cellules humaines. C’était faux mais il a tenté de se racheter une réputation en créant une société qui clone des chiens. Il tente lui aussi de ramener le mammouth laineux à la vie. Son objectif est de trouver du matériel génétique de mammouth dans les meilleures conditions de préservation possibles pour pouvoir le cloner. Nombreux sont les scientifiques qui estiment cela impossible. Mais une équipe russe avec laquelle il collabore a mis au jour un mammouth laineux à-demi émergé de la glace qui était dans un tel état de conservation que du sang liquide a pu être prélevé.

Que ce soit vrai ou pas… c’est difficile à dire. Ce matériel prélevé a été mis au secret dans une université russe. S’il existe vraiment, si un mammouth aussi bien conservé a pu livrer du sang liquide, peut-être pourra-t-on cloner ce matériel génétique et faire revivre les mammouths. George et son équipe ne pensent pas que cela soit possible. Mais qui sait ?

Cet entretien a été édité et coupé pour des soucis de clarté.

Retrouvez Simon Worrall sur Twitter

Source: NatGeo

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