Le Portugal dépasse les 100% d’énergies renouvelables, le prix de l’électricité chute



Il y a un an, le pays atteignait tout juste 6% d’énergies renouvelables. Un bond spectaculaire qu’on doit à l’essor de l’hydroélectrique et de l’éolien.

Trop chères, pas assez rentables, utopiques, inefficaces… Les énergies renouvelables continuent d’être décriées sur l’air du fameux « ça ne marchera jamais. » Seulement voilà, pendant que certains critiquent, d’autres, discrètement, sont en train de prendre une avance considérable et explosent tous les records. Exemple au Portugal où, sur l’ensemble du mois de mars 2018, la production d’électricité renouvelable a été supérieure aux besoins du pays !

La nouvelle a officiellement été publiée ce mardi 3 avril 2018 par l’Association portugaise des énergies renouvelables. À en croire les chiffres donnés par l’exploitant du réseau électrique du pays (Redes Energeticas Nacionails), en mars, la production d’électricité d’origine renouvelable a atteint 103,6% des besoins effectifs électriques de tout le Portugal. Autrement dit, le renouvelable a fourni encore plus d’électricité que nécessaire !



Principaux auteurs de cet exploit : les barrages hydroélectriques (qui ont couvert 55% des besoins d’électricité) et les éoliennes (pour 42% des besoins).


Enthousiaste, le rapport rédigé par l’association précise :

« Le résultat obtenu le mois dernier est un exemple de ce qui se produira plus souvent dans un avenir proche : d’ici 2040, la production d’électricité renouvelable devrait couvrir totalement et de façon rentable la consommation d’électricité annuelle du Portugal continental (…) Ces données, qui marquent un tournant historique dans le secteur de l’électricité au Portugal, démontrent que les énergies renouvelables peuvent être considérées comme une source sûre et viable pour répondre complètement à la demande d’électricité nationale. »

Conséquence de ces belles performances, le magazine Challenges annonce que le gouvernement portugais a suspendu dès ce mardi 3 avril les subventions versées aux compagnies d’énergie pour faire tourner les centrales thermiques (20 millions d’euros par an).




Autre raison de se réjouir, les énergies renouvelables auraient déjà permis de réduire les émissions de dioxyde de carbone de 1,8 million de tonnes.

Dans les pays volontaires comme le Portugal, le développement des énergies renouvelables connaît une accélération spectaculaire. À tire d’exemple, en mars 2017, soit il y a un an seulement, le renouvelable n’avait couvert que 6% de la consommation d’électricité du Portugal !

Un bond fantastique qui, mécaniquement, fait chuter le prix de l’électricité de 43,94 € en mars 2017 à 39,75 € cette année. (Source : Euractiv.)

L’exemple portugais est riche d’enseignements : les énergies renouvelables ça marche, c’est bon pour l’environnement et excellent pour notre porte-monnaie. Qu’on se le dise.



Mise à jour du 06/04/2018 : Nous avions indiqué que la production d’énergie renouvelable avait « suffi à alimenter tout le pays en électricité » pendant la période du mois de Mars, ce qui n’était pas juste. Comme le souligne Libération, au cours de cette période, la production en renouvelable a été supérieure à la consommation 60% du temps, mais a donc été inférieure à cette même consommation 40% du temps. Sur l’ensemble du mois du mars, la production totale d’électricité d’origine renouvelable a bien été supérieure aux besoins du pays. Mais, dans les faits, avec un éolien très variable et la difficulté de « stocker » l’énergie, un complément d’énergies fossiles a été nécessaire (charbon et gaz naturel principalement) pour répondre à la consommation de manière ponctuelle. Le surplus étant ensuite exporté.

 

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