Les nationalistes européens ont trouvé leur héraut

Quand M. Matteo Salvini en a pris la direction, en 2013, la Ligue du Nord se trouvait dans une impasse, incapable de convaincre les électeurs du Sud, dont elle disait pis que pendre. L’actuel ministre de l’intérieur italien a donc changé de cible, préférant stigmatiser les technocrates bruxellois et les « immigrés profiteurs » plutôt que les « Calabrais fainéants ». Une stratégie gagnante, qui a transformé son parti en pivot de la politique italienne, et peut-être européenne.par Matteo Pucciarelli aperçu

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Pablo Picasso. — « Minotaure », 1928© Succession Picasso — Photographie : François Tomasian – Centre Pompidou, MNAM-CCI – RMN-Grand Palais

L’Italie a un nouvel homme fort, et même, selon beaucoup, un nouveau sauveur. À Rome, le vrai chef du gouvernement n’est pas le président du conseil, M. Giuseppe Conte, ni le vainqueur des dernières élections générales, le dirigeant du Mouvement 5 étoiles (M5S) Luigi Di Maio. C’est le ministre de l’intérieur, M. Matteo Salvini. Du jour au lendemain, un obscur conseiller municipal de Milan, militant de longue date de la Ligue du Nord, une formation séparatiste, est devenu la personnalité la plus puissante du pays. Entre ses mains, un parti qui apparaissait comme une relique s’est transformé en pivot de la politique italienne, et peut-être européenne.

Cette mutation stupéfiante plonge ses racines très loin, non pas dans le temps, mais dans l’espace. Depuis 2014, les guerres et la pauvreté ont conduit des millions d’habitants de l’Afrique et du Proche-Orient à traverser la Méditerranée à la recherche d’un travail, de la liberté et de la paix dans une Europe âgée, riche, mais toujours plus inégalitaire. Le Vieux Continent a répondu en détournant le regard, ou en exploitant les fantasmes que charrie le désespoir d’autrui : non pas aider, mais identifier un ennemi et lancer un concours d’humiliation. Le dernier et l’avant-dernier des laissés-pour-compte de la planète sont dressés l’un contre l’autre tandis que les plus favorisés prospèrent en toute tranquillité. En Italie, M. Salvini a lancé la révolte des avant-derniers. Avec un certain talent, il a appris comment parler à leurs tripes.

La Ligue du Nord a été fondée en 1991, à la veille de l’implosion des trois partis de masse — démocrate-chrétien, communiste et socialiste — qui dominaient l’Italie depuis la seconde guerre mondiale. Se présentant comme « ni de gauche ni de droite », elle naît d’une union entre la Ligue lombarde de M. Umberto Bossi, apparue au milieu des années 1980, et quelques forces régionalistes implantées dans le nord du pays. Elle s’articule autour d’un objectif particulariste : l’indépendance de la Padanie, une nation imaginaire (…)

Source: Le Monde Diplomatique



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