Nos shampoings sont des cocktails chimiques dangereux pour la santé

Crédit Photo : Jay Cee
« On n’a aucune idée de ce qu’une certaine dose d’exposition à un mélange de perturbateurs endocriniens donnera à long terme. C’est pour cela qu’il faut les éliminer à la source car on ne peut pas les gérer par la dose. »



Une enquête réalisée par Martin Cadoret pour Reporterre fait état des substances hautement nocives pour notre santé et pour l’environnement présentes dans les shampoings. Sodium lauryl sulfate, silicones, ammoniums quartenaires, etc. derrière ces noms incompréhensibles se cachent des substances aux effets nocifs avérés, allant de la simple irritation aux maladies plus graves.

Pas facile d’évaluer la dangerosité d’un produit cosmétique quand on se retrouve face à une étiquette de la taille d’un timbre-poste détaillant une liste de noms obscurs qui ne nous évoquent rien. Une enquête réalisée par Martin Cadoret pour Reporterre revient en détail sur les composants présents dans ces produits du quotidien qui présentent un risque pour notre santé. On s’aperçoit vite que tout ce qui intuitivement nous donne l’impression de « laver » nos cheveux (la mousse, la douceur ou même l’éclat des cheveux)n’est en fait que l’effet d’un cocktail de produits chimiques…



Crédit Photo : Jay Cee

D’abord, on a le Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), un agent lavant et moussant qui agit de la même façon qu’un détergent. Cette substance est aussi bien présente dans les shampoings que dans les produits ménagers ou encore dans les dentifrices ! C’est grâce à ce tensioactif que le shampoing mousse sous la douche, ce que nous assimilons presque automatiquement à un gage d’efficacité. André Picot, ancien toxicochimiste au CNRS, explique :



« Le SLS a des propriétés très détergentes, il peut être irritant et allergisant. C’est-à-dire qu’il dessèche la peau et la rend plus sensible. »

Le SDS pourrait être converti en laureth sulfate de sodium (SLES), moins irritant pour la peau, mais plus cher pour les industriels…

Les silicones, présents dans de nombreux shampoings des marques traditionnelles permettent de donner l’illusion que nos cheveux sont lisses et doux sous la douche, et de faciliter le démêlage. Mais comme le souligne une rédactrice pour BioCoiff : « ils agissent comme un vernis qui étouffe shampoings après shampoings la fibre capillaire. » Ajoutons à cela que certains silicones nécessitent 400 à 500 ans pour se dégrader. C’est pour ces raisons que de plus en plus de marques se targuent de vendre un produit « sans silicone » mais comme le souligne l’article publié dans reporterre, les produits de substitution comme les ammoniums quartenaires présentent des risques presque identiques aux silicones.



Crédit Photo : Sharon McCutcheon

Bien sûr, à cette liste s’ajoutent les agents conservateurs qui contiennent des perturbateurs endocriniens en tout genre. Le méthylisothiazolinone par exemple, tristement élu « allergène de l’année 2013 » aux Etats-Unis, a été pointé du doigt par le comité de la Commission européenne sur la sécurité des consommateurs, sans aucune prise de conscience des industriels qui continuent à s’en servir abondamment dans leurs produits.



Plus que le danger que représentent ces substances isolément, c’est l’effet cocktail qui est dénoncé par les associations telles que l’UFC Que Choisir. Comme l’explique André Cicollela, toxicochimiste :

« On n’a aucune idée de ce qu’une certaine dose d’exposition à un mélange de perturbateurs endocriniens donnera à long terme. C’est pour cela qu’il faut les éliminer à la source car on ne peut pas les gérer par la dose. »

Si le principe de précaution ne semble pas être au rendez-vous du côté des industriels, nous pouvons quant à nous prendre au sérieux ces risques. L’UFC Que Choisir met ainsi à notre disposition une liste constamment mise à jourdes shampoings contenant des substances jugées dangereuses pour la santé (et ceux évidemment qui n’en contiennent pas).

Car il existe bien des alternatives à cette mousse toxique dont nous avons l’habitude tels que les shampoings secs ou à base de poudres de plantes comme le Shikakaï ou le Bois de Panama, ou tout simplement des produits bio disponibles en grande surface qui ont recours à des substances naturelles de substitution comme le sodium coco sulfate.


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