Obsolescence programmée : à quand le tournant historique ?

Propulsée dans le débat public ces dernières années, la problématique liée à l’obsolescence programmée n’en finit pas de faire parler d’elle tant elle met en cause le cœur même des économies basées sur la croissance et la consommation. Réalisé en 2009 par Cosima Dannoritzer et diffusé par Arte, le documentaire « Prêt à jeter » raconte comment la vente de produits à durée de vie limitée est devenue une stratégie à part entière parmi les industriels. Bientôt 10 ans plus tard, ce reportage édifiant n’a pas pris une ride en dépit des affres du temps…


Serait-ce un tournant ? Cette semaine, l’autorité de la concurrence en Italie a sanctionné  Apple et Samsung pour obsolescence programmée, leur infligeant respectivement respectivement des amendes de 10 et de 5 millions d’euros. « Les sociétés du groupe Apple et du groupe Samsung ont mis en œuvre des pratiques commerciales malhonnêtes » a considéré l’autorité, estimant que des mises à jour sur des téléphones de ces deux marques « ont provoqué de graves dysfonctionnements et réduit de manière significative les prestations, accélérant de cette manière la substitution de ces derniers« . Une lenteur qui, inévitablement, encourage à l’achat d’un nouvel appareil. En France, une enquête a été ouverte en janvier dernier contre Apple à l’initiative de HOP (halte à l’obsolescence programmée) pour des motifs semblables. Mais n’est-ce pas là que la partie visible de l’iceberg ?


AgbogbloshieÀ l’aube de l’industrialisation



Ces exemples, issus de l’actualité, illustrent les stratégies les plus récentes développées par les industriels pour forcer la main aux consommateurs, c’est-à-dire les pousser à acheter de nouveaux produits. Le documentaire de Cosima Dannoritzer n’a pas pris une ride. Il raconte comment, depuis les années 1920, les industriels et fabricants ont commencé à raccourcir la vie de certains produits de consommation courante notamment en les rendant plus fragiles. Et pour outrepasser les logiques libérales de la mise en concurrence, des accords entre marques auraient été passés pour généraliser la pratique. Depuis les premiers cartels ayant pour objet le contrôle du marché global dans certains secteurs (par exemple celui des ampoules) jusqu’aux batteries de téléphone à la durée de vie limitée, le reportage met en lumière les techniques déployées par les industriels pour contrôler les consommateurs et les pousser à acheter toujours de nouveaux objets.



L’obsolescence programmée peut prendre différentes dimensions, depuis la modification « harware » (physique) jusqu’à des techniques de neuro-marketing (obsolescence perçue). Selon l’Ademe, « la notion d’obsolescence programmée dénonce un stratagème par lequel un bien verrait sa durée normative sciemment réduite dès sa conception, limitant ainsi sa durée d’usage pour des raisons de modèle économique. » L’obsolescence est forcée, puisque la durée de vie de l’objet a été réduite « artificiellement » avec intention par le fabricant. Mais cet aspect ne doit pas faire oublier que le consommateur est parfois acteur de cette même obsolescence, notamment lorsqu’il cède aux incitations psychologiques de la publicité. En effet, dans les sociétés de consommation, la liberté d’acheter est promue comme un facteur d’émancipation.


 

Changer de paradigme

Il convient de comprendre le cadre de la naissance d’une telle logique. L’obsolescence programmée s’est développée dans un contexte de démocratisation de la consommation, de baisse des prix et d’excès de production. Une euphorie consommatoire qui se souciait guère des externalités écologiques. Afin d’assurer la pérennité des entreprises, des industriels vont avoir recours à l’obsolescence en que tant que stratégie pour préserver leurs intérêts financiers. Par ailleurs, le fait que les consommateurs soient très peu soucieux de la qualité des produits, préférant souvent l’aspect, le prix et la quantité, rien n’incite les fabricants, pas même l’État, à maintenir à niveau exigeant de qualité jugé trop couteux.


Mais désormais, le phénomène montre ses limites, non seulement parce que les consommateurs se sentent lésés, mais également parce que l’obsolescence a un impact social et environnemental négatif de plus en plus visible. Pendant que certaines régions du monde sont littéralement submergées par les déchets électroniques (comme la banlieue d’Accra au Ghana), la finitude des ressources et les pollutions de la société de consommation participent au désastre environnemental mondial. À moyen terme, la non-viabilité de ce modèle économique, reposant sur un capitalisme industriel débridé, ne fait que peu de doute.

Depuis quelques années, à l’image de Serge Latouche, les objecteurs de croissance insistent sur le fait que l’obsolescence programmée est un mécanisme intrinsèque à la survie même de la société de croissance. En d’autres termes, il ne s’agit pas seulement de critiquer les stratégies déployées par les fabricants, mais également de comprendre que le modèle économique contemporain et l’opulence de la société de consommation sont intimement liés à la durée de vie relativement faible des objets vendus. Dans le système actuel, les entreprises qui font durer trop longtemps leurs produits ne sont pas compétitives : aujourd’hui, les alternatives qui se développent, comme Fairphone par exemple, ne reposent que sur le soutien des consommateurs les plus engagés. Autrement dit, pour infléchir notre modèle actuel, ce n’est pas seulement l’économie qui doit être transformée : un changement transversal du paradigme contemporain est nécessaire.

Des alternatives en développement


Néanmoins, à l’image de HOP, la lutte contre l’obsolescence programmée s’organise désormais. En France, le législateur a été poussé à se saisir de la question, faisant en 2015 de la pratique un délit puni par la loi, la peine pouvant aller jusqu’à deux ans d’emprisonnement et de 300 000 € d’amende. Néanmoins, l’efficacité des nouvelles dispositions doit encore être démontrée et du chemin reste à parcourir pour empêcher la programmation de l’obsolescence au niveau industriel. Reste, dans le même temps, aux citoyens et aux citoyennes de faire évoluer leurs propres comportements et de limiter elles-mêmes leurs achats. Dans l’objectif de faire durer les leurs machines, de nombreuses associations, comme les « Repairs café« , accompagnent les individus dans la réparation des objets du quotidien afin d’allonger leur durée de vie. Si tous les acteurs s’y mettent, un changement sera-t-il rendu possible ?

Crédit image : Mr Mondialisation
source

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