Soudan du Sud : 300 enfants soldats ont été libérés… Mais le fléau continue

Suite au plan enclenché par les Nations Unies en collaboration avec l’UNICEF au Soudan du Sud, 300 enfants ont été libérés.

Les « enfants soldats »

Alors que la convention internationale des droits de l’enfant (CIDE) stipule que « chaque enfant a le droit de grandir dans un environnement qui le protège de la maltraitance et de l’exploitation et a le droit de ne pas faire la guerre ni de la subir », 250 000 enfants seraient toujours impliqués dans des conflits armés selon le Fonds des Nations Unies pour l’enfance (UNICEF). Leur travail a déjà permis de libérer 65 000 enfants à travers le monde sur les 10 dernières années. Utilisés comme combattants, espions, esclaves sexuels ou encore kamikazes, ils seraient plus de 125 000 mobilisés rien qu’en Afrique.

Soudan du Sud : 19 000 enfants toujours enrôlés

Suite au plan enclenché au Soudan du Sud par différents acteurs, notamment les Nations Unies et l’UNICEF, 300 enfants soldats ont pu être démobilisés d’un groupe armé à Yambio, capitale de l’Etat d’Equatoria occidental, le 7 février dernier. Ces enfants, âgés pour la plupart de 10 à 16 ans, ont ainsi été démobilisés lors d’une cérémonie au sein de la capitale, au cours de laquelle ces « soldats » ont été désarmés et ont reçu des vêtements civils. Geste symbolique pour officialiser leur liberté.

Dans les semaines à venir, 700 enfants supplémentaires devraient être libérés dans le cadre de ce programme de réinsertion afin de recevoir des soins médicaux ainsi qu’un soutien psychologique.  Selon les estimations, sur ces 300 enfants, le nombre de filles libérées s’élève à 87, un chiffre qui devrait s’élever à 220 d’ici la fin de l’opération. « C’est la première fois que tant de jeunes femmes participent à une libération comme celle-ci au Soudan du Sud » a précisé le représentant spécial du secrétaire général.

Un plan sur le long terme

Ainsi, le programme prévoit que les enfants, dont les proches habitent dans les alentours, pourront rejoindre leurs familles. Les autres seront placés dans des centres d’accueil « provisoires » jusqu’à ce qu’ils puissent retrouver leur foyer. Selon le site de l’UNICEF, le but du programme est également d’apporter un soutien financier aux familles afin de faciliter la réintégration de l’enfant, ainsi que de pouvoir leur fournir, à l’avenir, une formation professionnelle. Ce programme souhaite s’intégrer dans une logique de « long terme » ce qui demande de nombreux moyens souligne l’ONU :

« L’UNICEF doit trouver 45 millions de dollars pour appuyer les efforts de libération, de démobilisation et de réintégration des mineurs à travers le pays ».

Cette action représente une « grande victoire » lorsque l’on sait que « cela faisait plus d’un an qu’aucun enfant n’avait été libéré ». Aujourd’hui, 19 000 enfants sont encore enrôlés dans les groupes armés qui sévissent le Soudan du Sud victime d’une guerre civile depuis 2013.

La situation du pays

Après 17 ans de guerre, le Soudan du Sud obtient son autonomie en 1972. Mais après avoir été un peuple majoritairement animiste et chrétien, l’ensemble du Soudan est déclaré « Etat islamique » en 1983, annulant ainsi son autonomie. Les revendications et la guerre vont ainsi reprendre suite à la création de la SPLA (armée populaire de libération du Soudan). En 2005, un accord de paix « souhaitant l’égalité entre tous dans un même pays » est signé sous la tutelle des Etats-Unis. En 2011, l’indépendance est à nouveau approuvée à 99% par référendum et le nouveau pays est alors reconnu par la  communauté internationale.

En 2013 des combats éclatent à nouveau suite à des conflits politiques et ethniques internes entre le président du pays Salva Kiiret, et son premier ministre Riek Machar, tous deux officiers à la SPLA. Eclatant au cœur même de l’armée, ces combats vont plonger le pays en guerre civile et faire ainsi des milliers de morts, des millions de déplacés et enrôler ainsi des milliers de jeunes et enfants dans le conflit.

Photo de couverture : Stefanie Glinski / AFP

 

Source:  La Reléve et la Peste

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