Qu’est-ce Que Le Captagon, La Drogue Des Djihadistes ?

La douane française a saisi 750.000 comprimés de captagon en provenance du Liban début 2017. Cette drogue permettrait aux combattants de Daesh de commettre des atrocités. Un neurobiologiste nous explique son action sur le cerveau.

Le captagon, une amphétamine utilisée par les combattants djihadistes.© JOSEPH EID / AFP

 

La douane française a saisi 750.000 comprimés de captagon en provenance du Liban début 2017. Cette drogue permettrait aux combattants de Daesh de commettre des atrocités. Un neurobiologiste nous explique son action sur le cerveau.

En janvier et février 2017, les douaniers de l’aéroport de Roissy ont mis la main sur 750.000 comprimés de captagon, la « drogue des djihadistes », dans des moules industriels en provenance du Liban, a annoncé la douane française le 30 mai 2017. C’est la première fois que cette drogue est saisie en France. En novembre 2015, les forces de l’ordre antidrogue turques avaient mis la main sur près de 10,9 millions de comprimés au cours de deux descentes distinctes dans la province de Hatay, frontalière de la Syrie. Un mois auparavant, les autorités libanaises ont arrêté à l’aéroport de Beyrouth un prince saoudien qui tentait d’embarquer pour Ryad dans un avion privé près de deux tonnes de pilules de captagon rangées dans quarante valises.

Une pilule très prisée des combattants de Daesh ?

26 juin 2015, dans la station balnéaire de Port El-Kantaoui, près de Sousse, en Tunisie. Un homme âgé de 23 ans et du nom de Seifeddine Rezgui ouvre le feu sur des touristes. Bilan : 39 morts et 39 blessés. Selon des témoignages, pendant la tuerie, l’homme souriait et riait alors qu’il venait de commettre son massacre. Son autopsie mettra en évidence qu’il était sous l’emprise d’une drogue, selon une source citée par le Daily Mail. La substance en cause : la fénéthylline, vendue sous le nom de « captagon ». Cette pilule blanche (que l’on peut aussi s’injecter en intraveineuse) serait très prisée des combattants de Daesh. D’où son surnom de « drogue des djihadistes ».

L’impression d’être « le roi du monde »

Synthétisé pour la première fois en 1961, le captagon est un stimulant de la famille des amphétamines qui comprend notamment la métamphétamine et l’ecstasy (aussi appelé MDMA). Connue pour ses propriétés dopantes, cette drogue a été largement utilisée dans le milieu du cyclisme dans les années 1960 à 1970. À des doses modérées, le captagon stimule la production de dopamine et améliore la concentration, c’est pourquoi il a longtemps été prescrit dans le traitement contre la narcolepsie et l’hyperactivité. Mais il a été retiré du marché français en 1993 en raison des graves lésions cardiaques qu’il provoquait. Depuis 1986, la fénéthylline est d’ailleurs classée sur la liste des substances stupéfiantes placées sous contrôle international de l’Organisation mondiale de la santé.

« Comme toutes les autres amphétamines, cette drogue entraîne une résistance à la fatigue, une vigilance accrue et une perte de jugement. Elle donne l’impression à celui qui la consomme d’être tout puissant, d’être le ‘roi du monde’ en quelque sorte », détaille à Sciences et Avenir le Pr Jean-Pol Tassin, neurobiologiste de l’Inserm et spécialiste des addictions. Ce qui lui permet de tuer sans craindre de réaction de la part des autres, qui n’existent même plus pour lui. « Plus précisément, au niveau moléculaire, la fénéthylline pénètre dans les neurones et chasse deux neurotransmetteurs, la noradrénaline et la dopamine, présentes dans les vésicules. La libération de noradrénaline hors des neurones augmente la vigilance et réduit le sentiment de fatigue. La dopamine, elle, agit notamment sur le circuit de la récompense, responsable de la sensation de plaisir et, à haute dose, de l’addiction. »

La « descente » qui suit la prise de captagon

Les effets de cette drogue ne sont pas cantonnés au cerveau. « Le captagon augmente la libération du glucose, ce qui permet de prendre du muscle sans fournir d’effort. De plus, la libération de noradrénaline accélère significativement le rythme cardiaque », explique le Pr Jean-Pol Tassin. Mais tous ces effets restent temporaires. Les neurones doivent fabriquer de nouveau l’adrénaline et la dopamine rapidement libérées des vésicules neuronales, et seul le repos le permet. En l’absence de sommeil, c’est la « descente » : « les individus ressentent une fatigue intense, une psychose, des fonctions mentales altérées, l’alternance de phases d’euphorie et de dépression. C’est un peu comparable aux effets d’une nuit blanche sur le cerveau », précise le neurobiologiste. Et une euphorie intense permet de ne ressentir ni peur, ni douleur. Une arme redoutable face aux pressions. « On les frappait et ils ne ressentaient pas la douleur. La plupart d’entre eux rigolaient alors qu’on les bourrait de coups », témoigne un officier de la brigade des stupéfiants de Homs, en Syrie, interrogé par Reuters.

COMMERCE. Jusqu’en 2011, le centre névralgique de sa fabrication du captagon se situait au Liban. Depuis, la production se serait largement délocalisée vers la Syrie, selon un responsable de l’unité de contrôle des drogues libanais interrogé par Reuters. Le captagon serait devenu incontournable dans les rangs des combattants djihadistes syriens car il serait assez simple à fabriquer. Les pilules sont ensuite transportées par bateau ou voiture de la Syrie vers le Liban et la Jordanie, et sont vendues entre 5 et 20 dollars l’unité ou mêmes échangées contre des armes. D’après les chiffres de l’Organisation mondiale des douanes (OMD), la quantité de pilules saisies dans les pays de la péninsule arabique a fortement augmenté ces dernières années : plus de 11 tonnes de captagon en 2013, contre 4 seulement en 2012.

 

Source: Sciences et Avenir

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