Voici le système avec lequel le gouvernement chinois va noter ses citoyens

À partir de 2020, la Chine attribuera une note de confiance à chacun de ses citoyens grâce à un « système de crédit social » qui semble tiré d’une dystopie.

Il est de notoriété publique que, depuis l’avènement de Google et des réseaux sociaux, nos activités quotidiennes sont constamment surveillées et analysées : où nous allons, qui sont nos amis, ce que nous achetons en ligne, ce que nous y cherchons, lisons, regardons – et le temps que nous y passons. Mais imaginons maintenant que ces données soient évaluées selon des règles établies par le gouvernement, que notre score soit rendu public et qu’il détermine notre éligibilité au crédit ou à un emploi, l’école de nos enfants et nos chances d’obtenir un rendez-vous galant. Cela ressemble à un scénario de science-fiction terrifiant. Il est pourtant sur le point de devenir réalité en Chine.

En 2020, la République populaire espère avoir mis les dernières touches à son système de « crédit social », qui attribuera une note à chacun de ses citoyens en fonction de son comportement. Déjà effectif dans certaines parties du pays, le système de notation sera assorti dès le mois de mai 2018 de nouvelles variables glaçantes, dévolues aux délits en apparence mineurs.

Ainsi, les personnes qui se rendront coupables d’avoir fumé dans le train, de voyager avec des tickets hors d’usage ou d’avoir garé leur vélo sur un passage piéton risqueront de voir leur crédit social tomber assez bas pour ne plus avoir le droit d’acheter des billets d’avion ou de train. Dixit un communiqué de la Commission nationale de réforme et développement.

Et ce système n’a rien d’une simple menace : à l’heure qu’il est, plus de sept millions de citoyens chinois ont déjà vu leur note dégradée en conséquence de leurs actes. On peut se demander comment la Chine en est arrivée là. L’histoire commence avec Alibaba.

Sésame

Sur les sites de commerce chinois, il arrive souvent que les utilisateurs échangent leurs notes de crédit Sésame, une invention du géant du secteur, Alibaba. Ces notes, établies par sa filiale Sesame Credit à partir des montagnes de données amassées en ligne, permettent en effet de mesurer le degré de solvabilité de chacun. Elles vont de 350 à 900 points. Et plus la note de crédit Sésame d’un internaute est élevée, plus il reçoit des cadeaux, des avantages, et obtient facilement des emprunts. Avec 600 points, par exemple, il est invité à dépenser un crédit de 5 000 yuan en ligne. Avec 700 points, il peut se rendre à Singapour sans présenter les documents habituellement demandés pour ce voyage, tels qu’une lettre de son employeur.

Crédits : Alibaba

Les plus hauts scores donnent aux internautes une occasion supplémentaire de se vanter sur les réseaux sociaux, et près de 100 000 d’entre eux ne se sont pas privés de le faire sur l’équivalent chinois de Twitter, Weibo, dans les premiers mois qui ont suivi le lancement du système des crédits Sésame, en janvier 2015. Ils leur donnent également davantage de chances de faire des rencontres amoureuses, car la note de crédit Sésame d’un individu détermine la visibilité de son profil sur l’équivalent chinois de Tinder, Baihe. Mais sur quels critères cette note est-elle établie ?

Si personne ne connaît le fonctionnement de l’algorithme utilisé par Sesame Credit, l’entreprise a dévoilé les cinq facteurs qu’elle prend en compte pour établir ses notes de crédit. Le premier est justement le rapport de solvabilité de l’utilisateur. Le deuxième, sa « capacité de réalisation », que Sesame Credit définit comme sa capacité à remplir ses obligations contractuelles. Le troisième facteur repose sur la vérification des caractéristiques personnelles, telles que l’adresse et le numéro de téléphone. Jusque-là, rien de très choquant.

Mais le quatrième facteur repose sur le comportement et les préférences des internautes. Autrement dit, Sesame Credit porte des jugements sur leurs achats et leurs occupations. « Quelqu’un qui joue à des jeux vidéo pendant dix heures par jour, par exemple, sera considéré comme un oisif »déclarait d’ailleurs son directeur technologique, Li Yingyun, il y a quelques mois.  « Quelqu’un qui achète souvent des couches sera probablement considéré comme un « parent », qui sur la balance est plus susceptible d’avoir un sens de la responsabilité. »

Quant au cinquième facteur, il concerne les relations interpersonnelles en ligne. Partager ce que Sesame Credit qualifie d’« énergie positive », c’est-à-dire des messages sur le dynamisme économique de la Chine, fait gagner des points. Il est donc tentant de faire le lien entre Sesame Credit et le gouvernement chinois. D’autant qu’une loi de cybersécurité, entrée en vigueur le 1er juin dernier, oblige les entreprises qui opèrent à livrer les données personnelles de leurs clients aux autorités en cas d’enquête. Et que le gouvernement prévoit d’étendre la notation à toutes les strates de la société dès 2020.

Dan’gan

Appelé « système de crédit social », le système de notation national chinois pourrait inclure celui de Sesame Credit, ou bien recréer son équivalent. En tout cas, il y ressemble fortement.

Crédits : Sesame Credit

Le texte fondateur du projet gouvernemental, publié en juin 2014 par le Conseil des affaires d’État, reste vague quant aux moyens concrets de sa mise en oeuvre. Mais il consiste grosso modo à attribuer à tous les citoyens et à toutes les entreprises une note représentant la confiance dont ils sont dignes. Pour cela, toutes les informations administratives seront inscrites dans une base de données : acquittement des taxes, des tickets de transport, conditions d’acquisition de diplômes, suivi ou non des formations à la régulation des naissances, etc. Certains professionnels, tels que les enseignants et les journalistes, seront en outre soumis à des analyses particulièrement poussées.

L’intention du gouvernement chinois est claire : « Autoriser ceux qui sont dignes de confiance à se promener partout sous les cieux, tout en rendant chaque pas difficile pour ceux qui sont discrédités. » Plus loin, le document de 2014 précise : « Il s’agit d’établir une culture de la sincérité et des valeurs traditionnelles, en utilisant des mécanismes incitatifs mêlant des encouragements pour préserver la confiance, et des contraintes pour empêcher de la briser. » Ces « contraintes » sont listées dans un autre document, datant lui de 2016, et elles sont sévères : interdiction de voyager en première classe, impossibilité d’envoyer ses enfants dans les meilleures écoles, ou encore d’accéder à une promotion.

Comme le souligne le sinologue Rogier Creemers, « la mise en place d’un système de crédit social s’inscrit dans le passage de la Chine d’une économie planifiée à une économie de marché, dans laquelle la notion de confiance joue un rôle central ». Et comme le note la sinologue Séverine Arsène dans une tribune publiée par le journal Le Monde« la liste des domaines d’application évoque implicitement tous les scandales qui ont rythmé l’actualité chinoise ces dernières années : sécurité alimentaire, santé, arnaques dans l’e-commerce, conflits liés au travail et, en filigrane, l’immense problème de la corruption, qui empêche de prendre ces questions à bras-le-corps. » 

Pour elle, « le système de crédit social est sans doute un outil parfait pour le contrôle des opposants, et les paragraphes du document de 2014 concernant la culture ou l’éducation donnent des indications en ce sens. Le recours à la reconnaissance faciale, combiné à l’omniprésence des caméras de surveillance, annonce également un potentiel de surveillance assez effrayant. » Mais pour Rogier Creemers, un usage politique du système de crédit social est loin d’être certain. « La Chine dispose déjà de nombreux moyens de contrôler la population, tels que la censure sur Internet », dit-il. « D’ailleurs, il y a très peu d’opposants notoires au régime et celui-ci les connaît déjà tous par leur nom. »

Reste que le système de crédit social chinois rappelle étrangement le dan’gan, dossier de surveillance individuelle tenu par l’unité de travail pendant la période maoïste.

Le métro de Shanghai
Crédits : Wikimedia commons

Peeple

« D’autre part, ce système pourra donner lieu à de nouvelles formes de corruption pour truquer le score, et ainsi renforcer, plutôt que résoudre, le problème de départ », indique Séverine Arsène. « Dans nos démocraties, cela nous rappelle, s’il en était besoin, l’importance de la transparence, d’un débat pluraliste sur les choix politiques et de contre-pouvoirs pour résoudre les problèmes d’une société. » Cela nous rappelle aussi que les données personnelles que nous livrons volontiers à des entreprises privées comme Google et Facebook leur donnent un pouvoir à la fois inédit et incommensurable. Et nous ne sommes pas épargnés par la multiplication des classements et des systèmes de notation.

« Quand je parle du système de crédit social chinois à des Occidentaux, leurs réactions sont ferventes et viscérales », témoigne Rachel Bostman, spécialiste de la consommation et de l’économie collaboratives, dans son livre Who Can You Trust? How Technology Brought Us Together and Why It Might Drive Us Apart. « Pourtant, nous évaluons déjà les restaurants, les films, les livres, et même les médecins. » L’application Peeple, lancée par la Canadienne Julia Cordray et l’Américaine Nicole McCullough en 2016, propose carrément d’évaluer les gens. Sur une échelle de cinq étoiles, et dans trois catégories : « personnel », « professionnel » et « amoureux ». Avec cette philosophie en toile de fond : « Nous voulons que la personnalité soit une nouvelle forme de monnaie ».

Crédits : Peeple

Fort heureusement, cette application n’a pas rencontré beaucoup de succès. « Horrible », estime le magazine Fortune. « Terrifiant » insiste le Washington Post. « Aussi méchant que ça en a l’air », affirme Business Insider. « C’est une idée ridiculement mauvaise, comment imaginer que les gens soient assez stupides pour utiliser cette application comme si elle avait de l’importance ? » s’agace un internaute sur le site de Peeple. « Baser la valeur des gens sur n’importe quelle sorte de classement ? Peu importe ce que le classement prend en compte, cette application est une idée horrible, cruelle et dégoûtante. Si je pouvais donner zéro étoile à cette application, je le ferais, Apple et tous les autres développeurs devraient la retirer de l’App Store, et toutes les autres applications dystopiques et tordues devraient être illégales. »

Or, plusieurs applications et réseaux sociaux établissent un classement entre leurs utilisateurs, ou bien les sélectionnent à l’entrée. Le seul moyen de pénétrer Best of All Worlds est d’y être explicitement invité. The League vérifie toutes les références des candidats en matière d’éducation et de parcours professionnel. Tinder propose une version secrète, baptisée Select, à ses membres les plus courtisés. Et pendant ce temps, nos gouvernements font voter des lois de surveillance numérique, songent à centraliser les données médicales et à interconnecter des bases de données privées. Rien ne garantit donc que des États européens ou américains ne se laisseront pas à leur tour tenter par un système de crédit social.


Couverture : Une citoyenne de Shanghai. (Shutterstock/Ulyces)

Source: ULYCES

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