Voilà 5 solutions pour une (vraie) Transition Écologique !



Espérant apaiser le mouvement social des « gilets jaunes », Emmanuel Macron a pris la parole ce mardi 27 novembre pour dévoiler sa stratégie sur la transition énergétique. Néanmoins, il n’a pas su rassurer sur les questions de fiscalité et ses propositions pour entamer un virage énergétique n’ont pas convaincu les associations écologistes. Alors que l’ONU laisse deux années à l’humanité pour réagir, difficile de s’en tenir à ces déclarations de principe. Voici quelques pistes de réflexion à destination des autorités.


Un coup d’épée dans l’eau pour le Président de la République ? C’est la question qu’on peut se poser après son discours de mardi. En mettant en place un Haut-Conseil pour le Climat, chargé d’évaluer les mesures de l’exécutif en faveur de la transition écologique et énergétique et en annonçant les principales lignes du Plan Pluriannuel de l’Énergie, Emmanuel Macron espérait répondre aux critiques de ces derniers jours. Au plan international, à quelques jours de l’ouverture de la COP24 en Pologne, son ambition était également de réaffirmer le rôle moteur de la France sur les questions climatiques.


Macron a ainsi réitéré sa promesse selon laquelle toutes les centrales à charbon en France seraient fermées d’ici 2022. En ce qui concerne le nucléaire, il a répété la volonté de fermer la centrale de Fessenheim d’ici 2020, tout en repoussant la fermeture d’autres réacteurs à 2028. En matière d’énergies renouvelables, celui-ci propose de tripler l’éolien terrestre et de multiplier par cinq le photovoltaïque d’ici 2030, des propositions qui ne font que confirmer le chemin déjà entamé sans nouvelle ambition et qui suivent en réalité la trajectoire actuelle moyenne du développement des énergies renouvelables. Concrètement, il est difficile de dégager de véritables lignes directrices dans les annonces d’Emmanuel Macron, qui s’est limité à jouer à l’équilibriste : poursuivre sa politique, tout en tentant de rassurer les plus critiques.

Les associations écologistes déçues

Explicité, le plan d’action n’a pas suscité de réactions positives de la part des principales associations écologistesLes Amis de la Terre y voient des « mesurettes » et pointent que « le gouvernement n’est toujours pas prêt à passer à l’acte avec des politiques ambitieuses à la hauteur des enjeux et avec un calendrier accéléré pour faire face à l’urgence climatique ». Jean-David Abel, Vice-président de France Nature Environnement, appelle pour sa part le Gouvernement « à mettre ses actes en cohérence avec ses mots. Cela veut dire notamment mettre fin aux projets climaticides dans les territoires, comme le Grand Contournement Ouest de Strasbourg ou le forage offshore de Total en Guyane. Et cela veut dire également rendre la fiscalité plus juste, en taxant les plus gros pollueurs que sont les camions, les avions et les navires. » Même son de cloche au Réseau Action Climat, dont la directrice, Morgane Créach dénonce les petits pas du Président : « Qu’il s’agisse de la rénovation performante des logements, de la demande alimentaire ou du projet de loi mobilités, on ne perçoit que des ajustements à la marge, alors que des mesures profondes sont indispensables. »

En résumé, la transition écologique demande bien plus d’imagination et des politiques transversales pour articuler une nouvelle modélisation de l’ensemble des secteurs de l’économie et de la vie des ménages.

Dans ce contexte, plusieurs mesures d’urgence s’imposent. Après consultation avec les différents acteurs du milieu, nous notons 5 points-clés non exhaustifs 



1 – Sortir des logiques de croissance économique

C’est certainement le point le plus important parce qu’il structure l’ensemble des politiques liées à la transition énergétique. Une telle approche est nécessaire, car il n’est plus possible de perpétuer le mythe selon lequel la croissance pourrait permettre d’améliorer les conditions de vie de tous à moyen terme. Cette illusion renforce un peu plus les déceptions, les frustrations sociales et les tensions à l’intérieur de la société tout comme entre les pays.



Sans remise en cause d’un modèle de société fondé sur la croissance de l’industrie et des consommations, les prétentions écologistes, aussi nobles soient-elles, se solderont par des échecs à moyen terme. Face à l’urgence climatique, les sociétés humaines sont aujourd’hui contraintes d’admettre qu’il ne sera pas possible de perpétuer un modèle énergivore ou de simplement substituer les énergies renouvelables aux énergies fossiles sans diminuer les consommations. Autrement dit, un grand débat est nécessaire pour décider collectivement d’une décroissance des biens de consommation, d’une valorisation des low-tech et d’une protection mutuelle des biens communs. En d’autres termes, valoriser la qualité, plus les quantités. C’est tout un modèle qui est en cause, fondé sur l’aliénation au travail et à la publicité, sur une dépendance à l’obsolescence programmée, une omniprésence de la publicité et une consommation effrénée de biens. Ici, les comportements des individus sont tout autant en cause que ceux des industriels et de l’État.

2 – Gagner en indépendance vis-à-vis des énergies fossiles


Le 21e siècle sera marqué par une déplétion des énergies fossiles, plus rares et plus difficilement accessibles. Nous avons cette chance de pouvoir anticiper cette réalité. Ce mois-ci, l’agence internationale de l’énergie s’est inquiétée d’un choc mondial de la demande d’ici 2025, envisageant qu’à très court terme l’offre pourrait ne pas être suffisante pour répondre aux besoins croissants : en raison des cours mondiaux relativement bas, les principales compagnies ont freiné le nombre de nouveaux forages ces dernières années. Un tel choc de la demande aurait des répercussions graves sur l’ensemble de l’économie et les ménages, pouvant conduire à une nouvelle crise d’ampleur.

Dans ce contexte, l’État français doit pousser les investisseurs et notamment les banques, encore engluées dans les fossiles, à se détourner du charbon et du pétrole pour encourager le développement d’autres énergies, plus propres. Afin de sortir de l’impasse, de nouvelles restrictions en ce qui concerne les investissements les plus néfastes à l’égard de l’environnement doivent leur être imposés. L’Hexagone doit également lever ses propres contradictions : alors que le Président annonce une sortie du charbon d’ici 2022, en 2017 la loi sur les hydrocarbures (loi Hulot) a subi un détricotage en règle l’année passée, si bien que leur exploitation sera encore possible pendant de nombreuses années en France.

3 – Transports : réduire les distances et favoriser les transports en commun


Les transports font partie des secteurs les plus polluants au monde. Ils seraient responsables à eux seuls d’environ 15 % des émissions de gaz à effet de serre au niveau mondial, 25 % au niveau de l’Union européenne. Par ailleurs, en Europe, les émissions de particules des transports participent à la pollution de l’air, responsable de 500.000 morts prématurées par an. Double raison de s’attaquer à ce problème. Sans une relocalisation de l’économie pour réduire les transports de marchandises et une réflexion sur les déplacements individuels, ce scandale écologique et sanitaire pourrait bien se poursuivre longtemps. Il est donc indispensable aujourd’hui de favoriser les circuits courts, la production locale, de relancer les réseaux de transports en commun au cœur des villes ou entre les villes tout en favorisant des politiques innovantes comme la gratuité.




4 – Repenser les modèles agricoles

Les questions alimentaires seront certainement d’une des problématiques les plus fondamentales au 21e siècle. Responsable d’une bonne partie de la déforestation mondiale ainsi que de pollutions importantes au niveau des cours d’eau et des sols, l’agriculture est un secteur dans lequel les leviers d’action sont importants. Pourtant, le gouvernement traîne des pieds ces derniers mois, mettant de véritables bâtons dans les roues de l’agriculture biologique. Pour certains agriculteurs, les aides à la conversation en biologique ont pris jusqu’à deux années de retard ! De même, les aides de la PAC continuent d’avantager ceux qui ont les plus grandes surfaces, au mépris d’une agriculture diversifiée sur petite surface. S’il on voulait tuer dans l’œuf l’agriculture biologique en France, on ne s’y prendrait pas mieux.

Le gouvernement doit rapidement rectifier le tir et encourager une autre PAC, plus sensible aux enjeux contemporains tout en adressant des messages positifs à ceux qui se lancent dans l’agriculture biologique et qui se convertissent. Le retour vers des modèles agricoles locaux, résilients et un maximum indépendants des énergies fossiles, s’inspirant par exemple des expériences du Bec Hellouin ou des Fermes d’avenir, est souhaitable pour des raisons énergétiques, de pollutions et dans l’objectif de favoriser la création d’emplois locaux porteurs de sens.

5 – Mettre fin au gaspillage, à tous les niveaux

Nous sommes une civilisation du déchet, laissant derrière nous des montagnes de détritus et des pollutions sans nom. Tant que les entreprises les plus polluantes ne seront pas freinées par l’application de lois restrictives et que les circuits de recyclage ne seront que trop peu encouragés d’un point de vue économique, les lignes ne bougeront qu’à la marge. De nouvelles législations doivent désormais contraindre les industriels de faire évoluer leur mode de production afin de cesser la production de déchets inutiles (emballages), pousser au recyclage et favoriser la réparation des produits endommagés. On notera à ce titre que de très nombreuses solutions existent déjà sur le marché, dont des plastiques 100% biodégradables fabriqués en France. Abolir la majorité des déchets d’origine pétrolière est un choix de société possible.

Remarques

Certes, on peut considérer qu’entre la théorie et la pratique, il existe un gouffre de limites structurelles et psychologiques. Notamment, le fait qu’une décroissance impliquera sans doute de nombreux sacrifices. Mais vaut-il mieux des choix courageux ou un effondrement incontrôlable ? Anticiper ou subir ? Ces pistes doivent donc être explorées, critiquées, complémentées, commentées, mais certainement pas rejetées. Nous vous invitons à transmettre, réagir, partager et proposer de nouvelles pistes afin de pouvoir un jour construire un avenir serein, tous ensemble.


Peinture de Françoise Nielly

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